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for what 2 major reasons does the italian renaissance end

by Ms. Lucy Langosh MD Published 1 year ago Updated 1 year ago
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During the flowering of the Italian Renaissance, however, there were a number of catastrophes that contributed to its demise. A change in climate resulted in harsh winters and the decline of agriculture; this led to repeated famines and shortages. On the heels of a previous swell in the population, these shortages exacerbated the food problem.

Full Answer

What were 5 major effects of the Renaissance?

What were the 5 major changes during the Renaissance? Some major developments of the Renaissance include astronomy, humanist philosophy, the printing press, vernacular language in writing, painting and sculpture technique, world exploration and, in the late Renaissance, Shakespeare’s works.

What caused the Renaissance to begin?

The first main cause of the Renaissance was the increased interaction between different cultures and societies in the time before and during the start of the Renaissance. This is important because at the time Europe was in the midst of the Middle Ages.

Why did the Renaissance start in Italy?

Why Did the Renaissance Start in Italy? The Renaissance started in Italy because there were small breaks in the Christendom atmosphere and environment that had previously shaped Italy, which led to a freedom and independence. This newfound freedom and independence along with the presence of the ruins of Roman civilization led to the Renaissance.

Did 'the Renaissance' actually happen?

Yes, there was a Renaissance, The Italian city states were the richest in the world and they had extra money in their pockets that they could play with and the revival of ancient art and literature from classical times was as trendy as anything else they could have thought of. It gave artists a platform to produce and exhibit their works.

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What are two reasons why the Renaissance ended?

End of the Renaissance Spanish, French and German invaders battling for Italian territories caused disruption and instability in the region. Also, changing trade routes led to a period of economic decline and limited the amount of money that wealthy contributors could spend on the arts.

Why did Italian Renaissance end?

All of the northern Italian city-states were caught in the crossfire of alliances and counter-alliances that ensued; the Medici were exiled from Florence the same year for offering territory to the French in an attempt to get them to leave Florence alone. The result was the Italian Wars that ended the Renaissance.

What are 2 reasons the Renaissance began in Italy?

5 Reasons Why the Renaissance Began in ItalyIt had been the heart of the Roman Empire. ... Extensive scholarly activity recovered vital ancient works. ... Its city-states allowed art and new ideas to flourish. ... Vast trading links encouraged cultural and material exchange. ... The Vatican was a rich and powerful patron.

What are the 2 main themes ideas in the Italian Renaissance?

Key themes :Individualism.Rationalism.Secularism.Humanism.

When did the Italian Renaissance end?

The End of the Italian Renaissance In 1545, the Council of Trent officially established the Roman Inquisition. In this climate, humanism was akin to heresy. The Italian Renaissance was over.

What kicked off the Renaissance?

The fall of Constantinople in 1453 is almost certainly what kicked off the renaissance. The capture of the capital city of the Byzantine empire by the Ottomans caused many of their scholars to flee with what was most precious to them.

What are three reasons why the Renaissance began in Italy quizlet?

Italy's location provided trade and wealth. The Renaissance needed the wealth of the Italian city-states. The Church spurs Renaissance achievements and art. Italy had the best educational system in Europe.

What were the 3 factors that caused the Renaissance?

The three major factors of the Renaissance that were different from the middle ages were Humanism, improvements in discovery, and the Reformation of the Church.

What were 3 reasons that the Renaissance started in Florence Italy?

5 Reasons Why the Renaissance Began in Italy It had been the heart of the Roman Empire. ... Extensive scholarly activity recovered vital ancient works. ... Its city-states allowed art and new ideas to flourish. ... Vast trading links encouraged cultural and material exchange. ...

What were two main features of the Renaissance?

Characteristics of the Renaissance include a renewed interest in classical antiquity; a rise in humanist philosophy (a belief in self, human worth, and individual dignity); and radical changes in ideas about religion, politics, and science.

What were 2 subject matters in art of the Renaissance?

Subjects grew from mostly biblical scenes to include portraits, episodes from Classical religion, and events from contemporary life.

What were the two main goals of Renaissance artists?

In addition to its expression of classical Greco-Roman traditions, Renaissance art sought to capture the experience of the individual and the beauty and mystery of the natural world.

What were the main ideas of the Italian Renaissance?

Among them were humanism, individualism, skepticism, well-roundedness, secularism, and classicism (all defined below). These values were reflected in buildings, writing, painting and sculpture, science, every aspect of their lives.

What are the main themes of the Renaissance?

The major themes of the Renaissance include rebirth and rediscovery, humanism, rationalism, individualism, reformation, and secularism.

What did the Italian Renaissance focus on?

The Italian Renaissance was heavily focused on the upper class with elaborate works of art that were commissioned by wealthy families and organizations. The art focused on Greek and Roman mythology and had many religious themes. Italy was governed by city-states which influenced how the Renaissance spread.

What was the main theme of the Renaissance literature?

During this period, feelings and emotions were key to illustrating humanism, with the story more oriented on the character rather than the adventure. In addition, Renaissance literature revolved more around having a real humanistic protagonist with a real story to tell.

How did the Italian Renaissance affect the population?

As a cultural movement, the Italian Renaissance affected only a small part of the population. Italy was the most urbanized region of Europe, but three quarters of the people were still rural peasants. For this section of the population, life remained essentially unchanged from the Middle Ages. Classic feudalism had never been prominent in Northern Italy, and most peasants worked on private farms or as sharecroppers. Some scholars see a trend towards refeudalization in the later Renaissance as the urban elites turned themselves into landed aristocrats.

When did the Italian Renaissance start?

However, the ideas and ideals of the Italian Renaissance spread into the rest of Europe, setting off the Northern Renaissance from the late 15th century.

What were the major conduits of culture and knowledge in the Renaissance?

The Italian trade routes that covered the Mediterranean and beyond were also major conduits of culture and knowledge. The ancient classics brought to Italy by those who migrated during and following the Ottoman conquest of the Byzantine Empire in the 15th century were important in sparking the new linguistic studies of the Renaissance, in newly created academies in Florence and Venice. Humanist scholars searched monastic libraries for ancient manuscripts and recovered Tacitus and other Latin authors. The rediscovery of Vitruvius meant that the architectural principles of Antiquity could be observed once more, and Renaissance artists were encouraged, in the atmosphere of humanist optimism, to excel the achievements of the Ancients, like Apelles, of whom they read.

What is the meaning of the word Renaissance?

The French word renaissance ( rinascimento in Italian) means "rebirth", and defines the period as one of cultural revival and renewed interest in classical antiquity after the centuries during what Renaissance humanists labeled as the "Dark Ages".

Where did the Renaissance take place?

Renaissance ideals first spread from Florence to the neighbouring states of Tuscany such as Siena and Lucca. The Tuscan culture soon became the model for all the states of Northern Italy, and the Tuscan dialect came to predominate throughout the region, especially in literature. In 1447 Francesco Sforza came to power in Milan and rapidly transformed that still medieval city into a major centre of art and learning that drew Leone Battista Alberti. Venice, one of the wealthiest cities due to its control of the Adriatic Sea, also became a centre for Renaissance culture, especially Venetian Renaissance architecture. Smaller courts brought Renaissance patronage to lesser cities, which developed their characteristic arts: Ferrara, Mantua under the Gonzaga, and Urbino under Federico da Montefeltro. In Naples, the Renaissance was ushered in under the patronage of Alfonso I, who conquered Naples in 1443 and encouraged artists like Francesco Laurana and Antonello da Messina and writers like the poet Jacopo Sannazaro and the humanist scholar Angelo Poliziano .

What was the economic growth of Italy in the 13th century?

In the 13th century, much of Europe experienced strong economic growth. The trade routes of the Italian states linked with those of established Mediterranean ports and eventually the Hanseatic League of the Baltic and northern regions of Europe to create a network economy in Europe for the first time since the 4th century. The city-states of Italy expanded greatly during this period and grew in power to become de facto fully independent of the Holy Roman Empire; apart from the Kingdom of Naples, outside powers kept their armies out of Italy. During this period, the modern commercial infrastructure developed, with double-entry book-keeping, joint stock companies, an international banking system, a systematized foreign exchange market, insurance, and government debt. Florence became the centre of this financial industry and the gold florin became the main currency of international trade.

What was the most famous work of architecture of the Italian Renaissance?

Clockwise from top: Mona Lisa by Leonardo Da Vinci. A view of Florence, birthplace of the Renaissance. The Doge's palace in Venice. St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, the most renowned work of architecture of the Renaissance. Galileo Galilei, Tuscan scientist and father of the experimental method.

What is the Italian Renaissance?

For centuries, scholars have agreed that the Italian Renaissance (another word for “rebirth”) happened just that way: that between the 14th century and the 17th century, a new, modern way of thinking about the world and man’s place in it replaced an old, backward one.

What did the Renaissance intellectuals focus on?

As a result, many Renaissance intellectuals focused on trying to define and understand the laws of nature and the physical world. For example, Renaissance artist Leonardo Da Vinci created detailed scientific “studies” of objects ranging from flying machines to submarines.

What did humanism encourage?

Humanism encouraged people to be curious and to question received wisdom (particularly that of the medieval Church). It also encouraged people to use experimentation and observation to solve earthly problems. As a result, many Renaissance intellectuals focused on trying to define and understand the laws of nature and the physical world. For example, Renaissance artist Leonardo Da Vinci created detailed scientific “studies” of objects ranging from flying machines to submarines. He also created pioneering studies of human anatomy. Likewise, the scientist and mathematician Galileo Galilei investigated one natural law after another. By dropping different-sized cannonballs from the top of a building, for instance, he proved that all objects fall at the same rate of acceleration. He also built a powerful telescope and used it to show that the Earth and other planets revolved around the sun and not, as religious authorities argued, the other way around. (For this, Galileo was arrested for heresy and threatened with torture and death, but he refused to recant: “I do not believe that the same God who has endowed us with senses, reason and intellect has intended us to forgo their use,” he said.)

What was the 15th century like in Italy?

Fifteenth-century Italy was unlike any other place in Europe. It was divided into independent city-states, each with a different form of government. Florence, where the Italian Renaissance began, was an independent republic. It was also a banking and commercial capital and, after London and Constantinople, the third-largest city in Europe. Wealthy Florentines flaunted their money and power by becoming patrons, or supporters, of artists and intellectuals. In this way, the city became the cultural center of Europe and of the Renaissance.

What did Galileo Galilei prove?

By dropping different-sized cannonballs from the top of a building, for instance, he proved that all objects fall at the same rate of acceleration.

What did Renaissance writers and thinkers do?

Thanks to the patronage of these wealthy elites, Renaissance-era writers and thinkers were able to spend their days doing just that. Instead of devoting themselves to ordinary jobs or to the asceticism of the monastery, they could enjoy worldly pleasures. They traveled around Italy, studying ancient ruins and rediscovering Greek and Roman texts.

What was the new age in the 14th century?

The barbarous, unenlightened “Middle Ages” were over, they said; the new age would be arinascità” (“rebirth”) of learning and literature, art and culture. This was the birth of the period now known as the Renaissance.

What was the greatest achievement of the Italian Renaissance?

The greatest achievement of the Italian Renaissance, despite the higher profile given to Renaissance art, was probably humanistic education . The study of the Classics, a high level of literary sophistication, and a solid grounding in practical commercial knowledge (most obviously mathematics and accounting) were all combined in humanistic education. Royal governments across Europe sought out men with humanistic educations to serve as bureaucrats and officials, even as merchants everywhere adopted Italian mercantile practices for their obvious benefits (e.g. the superiority of Arabic numerals over Roman ones, the crucial importance of accurate bookkeeping, etc.). Thus, while not as glamorous as beautiful paintings or soaring buildings, the practical effects of humanistic education led to its widespread adoption almost everywhere in Europe.

Did the Church continue to educate its priests?

Even the Church, which continued to educate its priests in the older scholastic tradition, welcomed the addition of humanistic forms of education in some ways. Many of the most outstanding scholars in Europe remained members of the Church, benefiting from both their scholastic and their humanistic educational backgrounds. Erasmus, discussed in the last chapter, was one such priest, as was the most important figure in the Christian Reformation that began in 1517, the German monk Martin Luther.

Did the Renaissance end?

That being noted, the Renaissance did not really end. What "ended" with the Italian Wars was Italian financial and commercial power and the glory days of scholarship and artistic production that had gone with it. By the time the Italian Wars started, all of the patterns and innovations first developed in Italy had already spread north and west. In other words, "The Renaissance" was already a European phenomenon by the late fifteenth century, so even the end of Italian independence did not jeopardize the intellectual, commercial, and artistic gains that had originally blossomed in Italy.

What was the Renaissance?

This marked the transition between the Medieval or Dark Ages to Early Modern Europe. It was exemplified by a renewed interest in the arts, science, and philosophy.

What was the impact of Savonarola's rise to power on the Renaissance?

It is notable that during the time of Savonarola’s rise to power a backlash towards the permissive atmosphere of the Renaissance caused many works of art to be destroyed; an Inquisition was formed, and there was a prohibition and ban on many Renaissance works of literature. This prohibition saw the end of the illuminated manuscript.

What was the Italian war?

The Italian Wars, when the northern states were invaded by France (1494), ended independence for many of the city-states. With the sacking of Rome (1527) by the Spanish and German, the role of the Papacy (as the largest patron of Renaissance art and architecture) all but ended. Then there was war between Florence and Milan; at sea, there were battles between Pisa, Genoa and Venice.

What caused the collapse of the Florentine banks?

Trade throughout northwest Europe was disrupted by the Hundred Years’ War between England and France, and the expansion of the Ottoman Empire. When King Edward III of England refused to pay his debts, this had a ripple effect that caused the two largest Florentine banks (Bardi and Peruzzi) to collapse.

How did the Black Death affect Europe?

As with any major health crises in a city, disorder and pandemonium resulted. It is believed that the Black Death reduced Europe’s population by one third.

Why is the Renaissance important?

Generally speaking, there are many reasons why the Renaissance is an important area of study. Not only is the period highly engaging, but it also offers us several lessons by which we can approach the world today. Here are a few reasons why the Renaissance is worth studying.

What happened after the Renaissance?

Following the Renaissance, the world started changing in several significant ways. The Enlightenment, the Industrial Revolution, and the Scientific Revolution gradually developed on the heels of the thinking that had emerged in the decades and centuries before. The Renaissance was thus the “gateway” to the modern world.

Why do people look back on history?

Have you ever looked back to history with admiration, excitement, or nostalgia? Many people do, which is probably why history-themed TV shows and books continue to attract people’s attention in the world today. We might think that those who came before us lived in more interesting times, or maybe that they lived in cultures which were superior to our modern culture. During the Renaissance, people also looked to their past with a sense of admiration and in search of guidance. They did not look to the previous century, but instead to the ancient Greeks and Romans, whose civilizations existed more than a thousand years earlier. Patrons, scholars, artists, and engineers of the Renaissance looked back to their ancient ancestors in order to help them craft their world in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. It is really not surprising that this started in Italy, since many of the old ruins still standing in the Renaissance period would still have been considered engineering marvels – the products of some advanced people who once occupied the land.

What was the Renaissance considered?

While the Renaissance is mostly considered in light of the historical thinking that went on in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, leaders of that time could be very forward-thinking in their approaches. The Scientific Revolution was still centuries away, but we can still find in the Renaissance a push towards using new means to address problems. In the world of art, principles of perspective were explored which allowed for the creation of more and more realistic illusions in painted and sculpted images.

What did the Renaissance teach us?

The Renaissance teaches us the power of looking to the past for insights and inspiration in dealing with today’s issues. By looking to the past for guidance today, not only can we find potential sources of answers, but also ways to address current challenges that previous societies have faced.

What did people look for in the Renaissance?

During the Renaissance, people also looked to their past with a sense of admiration and in search of guidance. They did not look to the previous century, but instead to the ancient Greeks and Romans, whose civilizations existed more than a thousand years earlier. Patrons, scholars, artists, and engineers of the Renaissance looked back ...

How did the Renaissance thrive?

The Renaissance thrived by connecting the past, present, and future. In historical retrospect, the Renaissance is arguably the best example of a civilization with its feet in worlds of the past and the future. While all ages are guided by visions of what came before and what lies ahead to a certain degree, the way that those living in ...

When did the High Renaissance end?

The High Renaissance period came to an end in the 1520s. The clash between Christian theology and humanism resulted in a style known as Mannerism.

What were the effects of Greek and Roman texts?

Effects. Greek and Roman texts fostered a more rational, scientific approach to theology, the natural world, and the arts. Human beings and nature became subjects worthy of study. Artists adopted the rational elements of Classical learning, such as anatomy and aerial perspective and viewed the natural world as a path to the divine.

What were the influences of the 1100s?

Humanism and the work of St. Francis of Assisi became important influences on secular scholars and artists. Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Empire in 1453.

Who is Leonardo da Vinci?

Leonardo da Vinci, a genius in several fields, was the personification of the “Renaissance man.”

Who brought oil painting to Italy?

Wealthy merchants in Florence financed works of art and brought the medium of oil painting from northern Europe to Italy.

What did the Greek and Roman texts teach us?

Greek and Roman texts fostered a more rational, scientific approach to theology, the natural world, and the arts. Human beings and nature became subjects worthy of study.

Why was the Renaissance important?

In historical terms the Renaissance is important because it led to a major shift in European thought and worldview. While the Renaissance is considered to have begun in the city-states of the Italian peninsula in the 14th century, the main ideas of the movement eventually spread to all of Europe by the 16th century.

What were the major changes that emerged as a result of the Renaissance?

The most significant changes that emerged as a result of the Renaissance can be seen in European architecture, art, literature, mathematics, music, philosophy, politics, religion and science. Historians have identified several causes for the emergence of the Renaissance following the Middle Ages, such as: increased interaction between different ...

What was the goal of the Renaissance Humanists?

In general, Renaissance Humanism was the study of ancient Greek and Roman texts with the goal of promoting new norms and values in society. These norms and views varied from those at the time because they focused less heavily on a religious worldview. Instead, Renaissance humanists such as Petrarch use ancient texts to promote a worldview based on logic and reason. This was to be accomplished through the study of the ‘studia humanitatis’, which today is known as the humanities and includes topics such as: grammar, history, poetry, and philosophy. Renaissance humanists such as Petrarch (and others including

What was the second main interaction that occurred before the start of the Renaissance?

The second main interaction that occurred before that start of the Renaissance was the crusades . They were a series of religious wars carried out by Christian crusaders from Europe during the timeframe of the Middle Ages. Beginning in 1095 CE, the crusades saw European knights and noblemen travel to the Middle East in an attempt to capture the Holy Land away from Muslim people that had controlled the region for the previous centuries. In reality, there were many different crusades . Historians disagree on the exact number but in general, there were nine main crusades and many other smaller ones which occurred over a period of two centuries.

What was the essence of the Renaissance?

However, the essence of the Renaissance was that Europe experienced a shift in worldview and perspective.

What does the term Renaissance mean?

For example, the term ‘renaissance’ in French means ‘rebirth’ . This is in relation to the idea that the intellectual culture of the Renaissance was sparked by the rediscovery of these ancient philosophies and ideas which had largely been ignored in Europe throughout the Middle Ages.

What is the Renaissance known for?

Today, the Renaissance is perhaps best known for the famous artists and their famous works of art. Previous to the Renaissance, in the Middle Ages, art was much more stylized and focused on religious themes.

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Overview

History and development

Northern Italy and upper Central Italy were divided into a number of warring city-states, the most powerful being Milan, Florence, Pisa, Siena, Genoa, Ferrara, Mantua, Verona and Venice. High Medieval Northern Italy was further divided by the long-running battle for supremacy between the forces of the Papacy and of the Holy Roman Empire: each city aligned itself with one faction or the other, y…

Origins and background

By the Late Middle Ages (circa 1300 onward), Latium, the former heartland of the Roman Empire, and southern Italy were generally poorer than the North. Rome was a city of ancient ruins, and the Papal States were loosely administered, and vulnerable to external interference, particularly by France, and later Spain. The Papacy was affronted when the Avignon Papacy was created in southern Franc…

Culture

The thirteenth-century Italian literary revolution helped set the stage for the Renaissance. Prior to the Renaissance, the Italian language was not the literary language in Italy. It was only in the 13th century that Italian authors began writing in their native language rather than Latin, French, or Provençal. The 1250s saw a major change in Italian poetry as the Dolce Stil Novo (Sweet New Style, which …

Historiography

Any unified theory of a renaissance, or cultural overhaul, during the European early modern period is overwhelmed by a massive volume of differing historiographical approaches. Historians like Jacob Burckhardt (1818–1897) have often romanticized the enlightened vision that Italian Renaissance writers have promulgated concerning their own narrative of denouncing the fruitlessness of the Middle Ages. By promoting the Renaissance as the definitive end to the "stagn…

See also

• Italian Renaissance garden
• Italian Renaissance interior design

External links

• The High Renaissance in Florence – video
• Victoria and Albert Museum: Renaissance House
• The Prince by Niccolò Machiavelli Archived 2017-05-01 at the Wayback Machine –

1.Why did the Italian Renaissance End - DailyHistory.org

Url:https://www.dailyhistory.org/Why_did_the_Italian_Renaissance_End

32 hours ago  · The End of the Italian Renaissance Toward the end of the 14th century A.D., a handful of Italian thinkers declared that they were living in a new age. The barbarous, …

2.Italian Renaissance - Wikipedia

Url:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_Renaissance

16 hours ago  · All of the northern Italian city-states were caught in the crossfire of alliances and counter-alliances that ensued; the Medici were exiled from Florence the same year for offering …

3.Italian Renaissance - Da Vinci, Galileo & Humanism

Url:https://www.history.com/topics/renaissance/italian-renaissance

16 hours ago During the flowering of the Italian Renaissance, however, there were a number of catastrophes that contributed to its demise. A change in climate resulted in harsh winters and the decline of...

4.5.1: The End of the Italian Renaissance - Humanities …

Url:https://human.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/History/World_History/Book%3A_Western_Civilization_-_A_Concise_History_II_(Brooks)/05%3A_Politics_in_the_Renaissance_Era/5.01%3A_The_End_of_the_Italian_Renaissance

17 hours ago What are the reasons for the end of the Italian Renaissance? At the end of the 14th century, after the collapse of the Florentine and Roman economies due to the Great Famine of 13150 …

5.How did the Italian Renaissance end? - eNotes.com

Url:https://www.enotes.com/homework-help/how-did-italian-renaissance-end-695480

19 hours ago  · The end of the Renaissance was caused primarily by the beginning of the Protestant Reformation, which set off violent conflict throughout Europe and eliminated much of …

6.What Caused the Renaissance to End? - Reference.com

Url:https://www.reference.com/history-geography/caused-renaissance-end-e5dcde5c251a4d9a

3 hours ago Why is the Renaissance important? There are many highly interesting periods of history to learn about, but one of the most fascinating is that which covers the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries …

7.Why is the Renaissance important? – …

Url:http://www.italianrenaissance.org/why-is-the-renaissance-important/

14 hours ago Causes. In the 1100s translations of ancient Greek and Roman texts reintroduced Classical wisdom and knowledge in Europe. Humanism and the work of St. Francis of Assisi became …

8.Renaissance | Causes and Effects | Britannica

Url:https://www.britannica.com/summary/Renaissance-Causes-and-Effects

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