How Did the Government Respond? In response to the protests, the Chinese govt. shut down all rumors that construction had started, despite evidence that it was up and moving. They quickly deployed hundreds of riot police to the protest zones, warning of physical violence if it continued.
What was the main cause of the protests in 1989 in China?
What did the Americans think of China?
What was the propaganda campaign directed at the marching students?
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How does China deal with protestors?
Official response. Chinese authorities have pursued a variety of strategies to quell protests. This includes the use of coercive measures of suppression, censorship, the imprisonment or "re-education through labor" of dissidents and activists, and the creation of a vast domestic security apparatus.
How did the Hong Kong protests end?
It is one of the largest series of demonstrations in the history of Hong Kong, with thousands arrested in violent scenes. The Government declared peace and stability had been restored to Hong Kong with the National Security Law.
Why did China give up Hong Kong?
During the First Opium War, China cedes the island of Hong Kong to the British with the signing of the Chuenpi Convention, an agreement seeking an end to the first Anglo-Chinese conflict. In 1839, Britain invaded China to crush opposition to its interference in the country's economic and political affairs.
Has Hong Kong returned to China?
Sovereignty of Hong Kong was transferred from the United Kingdom to the People's Republic of China at midnight on 1 July 1997. This event ended 156 years of British rule in the former colony.
How long did Hong Kong protests last?
The march lasted over four hours. While police estimated 22,800 protesters, organisers claimed 130,000 participants.
Is Hong Kong losing freedom?
Over the past year, the People's Republic of China (PRC) has continued to dismantle Hong Kong's democratic institutions, placed unprecedented pressure on the judiciary, and stifled academic, cultural, and press freedoms.
What did police do to protesters in Hong Kong?
HONG KONG — Police fired rounds of tear gas, used a water cannon to disperse protesters and arrested more than 100 people opposed to Beijing's plan to impose a sweeping national security law in a return to the demonstrations that defined this city last year.
What happened to the Hong Kong extradition bill?
On 4 September, Carrie Lam announced that the government would officially withdraw the bill in October. However, she dismissed the other four core demands from the protesters. The bill was officially withdrawn on 23 October.
Chinese students protest at Tiananmen Square - HISTORY
Six days after the death of Hu Yaobang, the deposed reform-minded leader of the Chinese Communist Party, some 100,000 students gather at Beijing’s Tiananmen Square to commemorate Hu and voice ...
1989 Tiananmen Square protests and massacre - Wikipedia
The Tiananmen Square protests, known in Chinese as the June Fourth Incident (Chinese: 六四事件; pinyin: liùsì shìjiàn), were student-led demonstrations held in Tiananmen Square, Beijing during 1989. In what is known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre, or in Chinese the June Fourth Clearing (Chinese: 六四清场; pinyin: Liùsì qīngchǎng) or June Fourth Massacre (Chinese: 六四屠杀 ...
Paper 1 content on China 1976-1989 Flashcards | Quizlet
In early 1977 Hua somewhat rashly vowed to support whatever policy decisions were made by Chairman Mao and "unswervingly follow whatever instructions were given by Chairman Mao--earning Hua Guofeng and his associates the name of the "whatever" factions, the pejorative label that their political opponents were soon to bestow.
Chapter 22 Flashcards | Quizlet
Start studying Chapter 22. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
What are the protesters demanding in Hong Kong?
On Hong Kong's streets, protesters are demanding an independent investigation into police brutality; a permanent retraction of the extradition law to China which served as the impetus of the more than three months of protest so far; the resignation of Hong Kong's non-elected leader Carrie Lam; and universal suffrage to choose a new leader.
Why was the march in Hong Kong falsely labelled?
It falsely labelled the march as one in support of the bill, which would allow extradition of some criminal defendants in Hong Kong to face trial in China. The state broadcaster, CCTV, kept its coverage to a minimum. China's government was silent.
What is China's office on Hong Kong affairs?
China's office on Hong Kong affairs encouraged supporters in Hong Kong to "defend the homeland" by staging counter protests, while alleged pro-Beijing white-shirted thugs are continuing attacks on demonstrators. China has shown itself to be willing to ramp up pressure on anyone, particularly foreign businesses, who appears to support the protests.
Why did people march in Hong Kong on June 9?
When hundreds of thousands filled Hong Kong's streets on June 9 to protest a controversial extradition bill, the only mainland coverage came from China Daily, an English-language state newspaper geared towards overseas audiences. It falsely labelled the march as one in support of the bill, which would allow extradition of some criminal defendants ...
Where did China drill in Hong Kong?
On Tuesday, the day after protesters temporarily shut down Hong Kong's airport, China's paramilitary forces began drilling in Shenzhen, the mainland city that borders Hong Kong. The week before, twelve thousand Shenzhen police turned out for a highly-publicized drill during which they simulated beating protesters with poles.
When is the 70th anniversary of China's rule?
China celebrates the 70 th anniversary of Communist rule on October 1 and its armed forces are preparing for a massive military parade in Beijing. The military activity may have a secondary purpose as an intimidation tactic: to signal a clear threat of military action in Hong Kong. On Tuesday, the day after protesters temporarily shut down Hong ...
Who is Yang Guang?
But two weeks ago, China's top office on Hong Kong finally had something to say. Yang Guang, a spokesperson for the State Council Office for Hong Kong and Macau Affairs, acknowledged the protests. He called them "evil and criminal." Since then, Chinese state media have been covering Hong Kong's "turmoil" daily with increasingly hostile rhetoric.
When did student protests start?
In the mid-1980s, student-led protests started.
What was the government's response?
At first, the government took no direct action against the protesters.
What happened in 1989?
AFP. image caption. By early June 1989, huge numbers had gathered in Tiananmen Square. Thirty years ago, Beijing's Tiananmen Square became the focus for large-scale protests, which were crushed by China's Communist rulers. The events produced one of the most iconic photos of the 20th Century - a lone protester standing in front of a line ...
What did Deng Xiaoping do to boost the economy?
The ruling Communist Party began to allow some private companies and foreign investment. Leader Deng Xiaoping hoped to boost the economy and raise living standards. However, the move brought with it corruption, while at the same time raising hopes for greater political openness. image copyright.
How many people were in Tiananmen Square?
In the following weeks, protesters gathered in Tiananmen Square, with numbers estimated to be up to one million at their largest. The square is one of Beijing's most famous landmarks.
Do people in China know what happened?
Discussion of the events that took place in Tiananmen Square is highly sensitive in China.
What does the Chinese government call the massacre?
The Chinese government also uses its own language to refer to the massacre. Officials tend to call it “chaos” or “turmoil.” Rather than a mass uprising, they point to the influence of a few older “black hands” over impressionable students. Chinese dissidents call it “June 4” or “6-4”—a loaded term, since it’s an allusion to the first student protests of May 4, 1919, against the Chinese ruling class, known as “5-4.” Chinese officials reject that terminology: When they need to use a date, they call it the “ June 4 incident .”
What was the government's attitude toward Tiananmen Square?
Since then, the government’s attitude toward Tiananmen Square has shifted from countermessaging to dismissal. In 1990, then-General Secretary Jiang Zemin called the international controversy “much ado about nothing.” In 2003, Premier Wen Jiabao referred to the incident as occurring “in the last century.” Leaders now call it settled history and decline to elaborate.
What year was the Tiananmen Square massacre?
This week marks the 20 th anniversary of the 1989 Tiananmen Square massacre. Western media characterize the incident as a brutal government crackdown on peaceful protesters. What does the Chinese government say about it?
What were the only deaths that the government acknowledged?
The only deaths it acknowledged were the deaths of People’s Liberation Army soldiers —several were burned alive in their vehicles—who were declared martyrs. One example of the government’s interpretation of events is the infamous image of a man in a white shirt blocking four Chinese tanks.
What is the Chinese term for June 4?
Chinese dissidents call it “June 4” or “6-4”—a loaded term, since it’s an allusion to the first student protests of May 4, 1919, against the Chinese ruling class, known as “5-4.”. Chinese officials reject that terminology: When they need to use a date, they call it the “ June 4 incident .”.
How long did the People's Liberation Army intervene?
For the most part, the government avoids discussing the issue at all. The government does acknowledge that the People’s Liberation Army intervened after seven weeks of demonstrations and that people were killed.
How many people died in the June 3rd massacre?
No one knows exactly how many people died the night of June 3, since information is scarce and unreliable. Most estimates range from about 150 to 3,000 deaths. The Chinese Red Cross initially reported 2,600 deaths but quickly retracted its statement. Some news organizations have reported an official government number of 241, but it’s unclear who arrived at that figure or how. The most conservative estimate comes from the group Tiananmen Mothers, a group of relatives of people killed in the massacre, which has confirmed 186 deaths, although not all at the hands of the army. Relatively few deaths actually occurred in the square itself—most of the violence took place in the streets surrounding it.
Why did the Chinese protest in 1989?
In the spring of 1989, pro-democracy protesters in China held demonstrations in Beijing’s Tiananmen Square to call on the Communist Party to reform and give the Chinese people political freedom. On June 4, the Chinese government launched a violent crackdown to end the protests that shocked the world.
What sanctions did the Bush administration and Congress impose on China?
The Bush administration and Congress would later impose some trade-related sanctions on China, despite the president’s reluctance to take actions that would hurt the Chinese people economically.
The protests were set off by the death of Hu Yaobang, a former Communist Party leader who pursued market-oriented economic reforms to the benefit of China’s economy but was forced out by Party elders who blamed him for a wa ve of protests in 1987. On April 21, a day before Yaobang’s funeral, 100,000 students marched on Tiananmen Square calling for freedom of the speech, freedom of the press, and greater government accountability.
How did the U.S. respond?
Bush held a press conference condemning the Chinese government for “brutally suppressing popular and peaceful demonstrations in China,” and praising the Tiananmen protesters:
What did Pompeo call on China to end?
To mark the 30th anniversary of the Tiananmen Square protests, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo called on China to end its persecution of human rights activists and Uighur Muslims, in addition to making a full accounting of what transpired on June 4, 1989:
What should we do on the 30th anniversary of the Tiananmen tragedy?
On the 30th Anniversary of this tragedy, the US must continue to speak out and defend Democracy and free speech to the world. I don't agree with Secretary Pompeo usually, but I do applaud that he spoke out openly about Tiananmen, which apparently upset the Chinese government. That's what we need to keep doing. We can continue to trade and keep peace with China, but as a defender of freedom and Democracy we can never be silent. When Chinese students come here, they should hear about and learn about the Chinese government's actions on this day, and when we talk to China about trade and arms and all other diplomatic efforts we must always condemn how they have buried the truth of this tragedy. By allowing them to rewrite history we will allow tyranny and fascism to flourish.
How many people were in Tiananmen Square on April 21?
The demonstrations resonated with the Chinese public ― at their peak more than 1 million people were in the Square and protests spread to cities around China.
What did the students argue about the protests in China?
The students also argued that China’s educational system did not adequately prepare them for an economic system with elements of free-market capitalism. Some leaders within China’s government were sympathetic to the protesters’ cause, while others saw them as a political threat.
Who were the protesters in Tiananmen Square?
Pro-democracy protesters, mostly students, initially marched through Beijing to Tiananmen Square following the death of Hu Yaobang. Hu, a former Communist Party leader, had worked to introduce democratic reform in China. In mourning Hu, the students called for a more open, democratic government. Eventually thousands of people joined ...
What was the Tiananmen Square Massacre?
Author: History.com Editors. Jacques Langevin/Sygma/Getty Images. The Tiananmen Square protests were student-led demonstrations calling for democracy, free speech and a free press in China. They were halted in a bloody crackdown, known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre, by the Chinese government on June 4 and 5, 1989.
How many people were arrested in the Tiananmen Square Massacre?
Reporters and Western diplomats there that day estimated that hundreds to thousands of protesters were killed in the Tiananmen Square Massacre, and as many as 10,000 were arrested.
How many people were in Tiananmen Square in May?
By the end of May more than one million protesters had gathered in Tiananmen Square. They held daily marches and vigils, and images of the events were transmitted by media organizations to audiences in the United States and Europe.
Why is Tiananmen Square important?
The location took on added significance as China shifted from an emperor-led political culture to one that was governed by the Communist Party.
Where is Mao Zedong buried?
Mao Zedong, considered the founding father of the People’s Republic of China, is interred at Tiananmen Square , in a mausoleum on the plaza.
What was the main cause of the protests in 1989 in China?
During the mid-1980s, the communist government of the PRC had been slowly edging toward a liberalization of the nation’s strict state-controlled economy, in an attempt to attract more foreign investment and increase the nation’s foreign trade. This action sparked a call among many Chinese citizens, including many students, for reform of the country’s communist-dominated political system. By early 1989, peaceful protests against the government began in some of China’s largest cities. The biggest protest was held on April 18 in the capital city of Beijing. Marching through Tiananmen Square in the center of the city, thousands of students carried banners, chanted slogans, and sang songs calling for a more democratic political atmosphere.
What did the Americans think of China?
Many Americans assumed that China, like the Soviet Union and the communist nations of Eastern Europe, had been moving toward a free market and political democracy. The brutal government repression of the protests shocked the American public.
What was the propaganda campaign directed at the marching students?
Several of the demonstration leaders were arrested, and a propaganda campaign was directed at the marching students, declaring that they sought to “create chaos under the heavens.”.