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on what does the efficiency of an ideal carnot engine depends

by Dr. Araceli Wisoky Published 4 months ago Updated 1 month ago
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The Carnot efficiency depends only on the temperature of the hot source and the cold sink.

Full Answer

How to calculate Carnot efficiency?

To find the result, you need to follow these steps:

  • Use the temperature converter to convert 25°C to Kelvins. You can also do the calculations manually; in this case, Tc = 25 + 273.15 = 298.15 K.
  • Repeat step 1 for the temperature of the hot reservoir. In this case, Th = 135 + 273.15 = 408.15 K.
  • Input these values into the Carnot efficiency equation:

How can the efficiency of a Carnot engine be increased?

The efficiency of the carnot engine can be increased by either increasing the sink temperature or by decreasing the reservoir temperature. What are limitations of Carnot cycle? isentropic process is possible if it very fast.

What is Carnot cycle and its efficiency?

Carnot cycle is a reversible cycle and hence it as an ideal cycle, where each process of cycle will be reversible process and Carnot cycle will have the highest efficiency and hence it is also termed as highest efficient heat engine.

Is Carnot engine the only reversible engine?

The Carnot cycle heat engine was specifically designed to be reversible by virtue of the two isothermal and adiabatic steps. The problem, of course, is that it is an idealized heat engine.

What is the upper limit of a carnot?

How much efficiency can a fossil fuel plant achieve?

Why is heat engine inefficient?

What causes inefficiency in a real system?

Is a Carnot heat engine more efficient than a reversible engine?

Is thermodynamics irreversible?

Is Carnot efficiency reversible?

See 4 more

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What is Carnot engine on what factors does it depend?

Since a Carnot heat engine is also a reversible engine, the efficiency of all the reversible heat engines is determined as the efficiency of the Carnot heat engine that depends solely on the temperatures of its hot and cold reservoirs.

On what factor the efficiency of engine depends?

The efficiency of internal combustion engines depends on several factors, the most important of which is the expansion ratio. For any heat engine the work which can be extracted from it is proportional to the difference between the starting pressure and the ending pressure during the expansion phase.

What increases efficiency of Carnot engine?

Hence, by decreasing the sink temperature and increasing reservoir temperature. We can increase the efficiency of the Carnot.

Does Carnot efficiency depends on working fluid?

Solution : The efficiency of carnot engine is not affected by the nature of working substance.

For which type of engine is the efficiency of Carnot cycle maximum?

Reversible heat engineDetailed Solution. A Reversible heat engine has maximum efficiency.

What are some factors that affect the efficiency of automobile engines?

These include the chemical energy loss in emissions, heat losses from the engine and through the exhaust gas, and gas pumping and friction losses in the engine. Accordingly, the overall brake thermal efficiency of the engine is a product of the combustion, thermodynamic, gas exchange, and mechanical efficiency.

What do you mean by efficiency of Carnot engine?

The Carnot efficiency depends only on the temperature of the hot source and the cold sink. Carnot efficiency describes the maximum thermal efficiency that a heat engine can achieve as permitted by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The law was derived by Sadi Carnot in 1824.

How do you find the efficiency of a Carnot engine?

efficiency =WQH=1−TCTH. These temperatures are of course in degrees Kelvin, so for example the efficiency of a Carnot engine having a hot reservoir of boiling water and a cold reservoir ice cold water will be 1−(273/373)=0.27, just over a quarter of the heat energy is transformed into useful work.

How can you increase the efficiency of heat engine?

Hence, the efficiency of the heat engine can be increased by decreasing the temperature of the cold sink or increasing the temperature of the hot source.

What is Carnot heat engine class 11?

Solution : A carnot engine is an engine converting heat energy into mechanical energy using a cyclic process consisting of two isothermal and two adiabatic reversible process.

Why is Carnot cycle ideal?

The Carnot cycle has the greatest efficiency possible of an engine (although other cycles have the same efficiency) based on the assumption of the absence of incidental wasteful processes such as friction, and the assumption of no conduction of heat between different parts of the engine at different temperatures.

Why the efficiency of Carnot engine is independent of nature of the working substance?

The efficiency of Carnot's engine does not depend on the nature of working substance. Efficiency depends on the temperature of source T1 and temperature of sink T2. (a) Two bodies at different temperatures T1 and T2 if brought in thermal contact do not necessarily settle to the mean temperature (T1 + T2)/2.

What are the variables that affect engine performance?

The important variables which influence the performance and emissions are compression ratio, load and speed, fuel injection parameters (which include injection pressure, injection timing and injection duration), air swirl and piston design.

What is the formula of efficiency of Carnot engine?

efficiency =WQH=1−TCTH. These temperatures are of course in degrees Kelvin, so for example the efficiency of a Carnot engine having a hot reservoir of boiling water and a cold reservoir ice cold water will be 1−(273/373)=0.27, just over a quarter of the heat energy is transformed into useful work.

How efficient are heat engines?

Heat engines often operate at around 30% to 50% efficiency, due to practical limitations. It is impossible for heat engines to achieve 100% thermal efficiency () according to the Second law of thermodynamics.

How the efficiency of Rankine cycle can be improved?

Increasing the operating pressure of the boiler leads to an increase in the temperature at which heat is transferred to the steam and thus raises the efficiency of the cycle.

Why is the Carnot engine the most efficient? - Physics Stack Exchange

$\begingroup$ Take any segment of such a cycle where there is a heat exchange. For the segment to be reversible, the heat can only be exchanged when the temperatures of the system and of the heat source are the same (otherwise the segment can not be reverted: heat always flows from hot to cold).

Carnot Engine: Meaning, Efficiency, and Solved Examples - Embibe

Carnot Cycle. There are two Isothermal Processes and two Adiabatic Processes present in the Carnot cycle. The theoretical heat engine that operates on this cycle is the Carnot Engine. It consists of four operations in succession as shown in the above figure; (a) isothermal expansion (heat absorption) at a higher temperature \({T_h}\,\left( b \right)\) the adiabatic expansion between ...

What is the upper limit of a carnot?

This upper limit is called the Carnot efficiency. According to the Carnot principle, no engine can be more efficient than a reversible engine ( a Carnot heat engine) operating between the same high temperature and low temperature reservoirs. For example, when the hot reservoir have T hot of 400°C (673K) and T cold of about 20°C (293K), ...

How much efficiency can a fossil fuel plant achieve?

Sub-critical fossil fuel power plants, that are operated under critical pressure (i.e. lower than 22.1 MPa), can achieve 36–40% efficiency.

Why is heat engine inefficient?

Each heat engine is somehow inefficient. This inefficiency can be attributed to three causes. Irreversibility of Processes. There is an overall theoretical upper limit to the efficiency of conversion of heat to work in any heat engine. This upper limit is called the Carnot efficiency. According to the Carnot principle, ...

What causes inefficiency in a real system?

Presence of Friction and Heat Losses. In real thermodynamic systems or in real heat engines, a part of the overall cycle inefficiency is due to the losses by the individual components. In real devices (such as turbines, pumps, and compressors) a mechanical friction, heat losses and losses in the combustion process cause further efficiency losses.

Is a Carnot heat engine more efficient than a reversible engine?

Carnot’s principle states: No engine can be more efficient than a reversible engine ( a Carnot heat engine) operating between the same high temperature and low temperature reservoirs. The efficiencies of all reversible engines ( Carnot heat engines) operating between the same constant temperature reservoirs are the same, ...

Is thermodynamics irreversible?

But all real thermodynamic processes are somehow irreversible. They are not done infinitely slowly. Therefore, heat engines must have lower efficiencies than limits on their efficiency due to the inherent irreversibility of the heat engine cycle they use. Presence of Friction and Heat Losses.

Is Carnot efficiency reversible?

The Carnot efficiency is valid for reversible processes. These processes cannot be achieved in real cycles of power plants. The Carnot efficiency dictates that higher efficiencies can be attained by increasing the temperature of the steam. This feature is valid also for real thermodynamic cycles.

What is the upper limit of a carnot?

This upper limit is called the Carnot efficiency. According to the Carnot principle, no engine can be more efficient than a reversible engine ( a Carnot heat engine) operating between the same high temperature and low temperature reservoirs. For example, when the hot reservoir have T hot of 400°C (673K) and T cold of about 20°C (293K), ...

How much efficiency can a fossil fuel plant achieve?

Sub-critical fossil fuel power plants, that are operated under critical pressure (i.e. lower than 22.1 MPa), can achieve 36–40% efficiency.

Why is heat engine inefficient?

Each heat engine is somehow inefficient. This inefficiency can be attributed to three causes. Irreversibility of Processes. There is an overall theoretical upper limit to the efficiency of conversion of heat to work in any heat engine. This upper limit is called the Carnot efficiency. According to the Carnot principle, ...

What causes inefficiency in a real system?

Presence of Friction and Heat Losses. In real thermodynamic systems or in real heat engines, a part of the overall cycle inefficiency is due to the losses by the individual components. In real devices (such as turbines, pumps, and compressors) a mechanical friction, heat losses and losses in the combustion process cause further efficiency losses.

Is a Carnot heat engine more efficient than a reversible engine?

Carnot’s principle states: No engine can be more efficient than a reversible engine ( a Carnot heat engine) operating between the same high temperature and low temperature reservoirs. The efficiencies of all reversible engines ( Carnot heat engines) operating between the same constant temperature reservoirs are the same, ...

Is thermodynamics irreversible?

But all real thermodynamic processes are somehow irreversible. They are not done infinitely slowly. Therefore, heat engines must have lower efficiencies than limits on their efficiency due to the inherent irreversibility of the heat engine cycle they use. Presence of Friction and Heat Losses.

Is Carnot efficiency reversible?

The Carnot efficiency is valid for reversible processes. These processes cannot be achieved in real cycles of power plants. The Carnot efficiency dictates that higher efficiencies can be attained by increasing the temperature of the steam. This feature is valid also for real thermodynamic cycles.

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