Knowledge Builders

was a journalist who exposed unfair business practices by standard oil

by Dr. Crawford Medhurst Published 1 year ago Updated 3 months ago
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Journalist Ida M. Tarbell

What did Jacob Riis expose about the Standard Oil Company?

Her History of the Standard Oil Company, published in 1904, exposed the ruthless business methods of John D. Rockefeller. It was a landmark work of the journalism that became known as "muckraking." Jacob Riis was born in Denmark in 1849 and emigrated to the United States in 1870.

What did Ida Tarbell write about Standard Oil Company?

Ida Tarbell wrote about the monopolistic practices of John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company, which destroyed small businesses, including her father’s. Their reporting generated concern among members of the public and lawmakers, and in some cases, led to laws that addressed the problems they were covering.

What led to the breakup of Standard Oil?

The resulting furor led to a Supreme Court case finding that Standard Oil was in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act, and that led to the breakup of Standard Oil in 1911. Ray Stannard Baker (1870–1946) was a Michigan man who enrolled in law school before turning to journalism and literature.

Why is Harriet Tarbell important to journalism?

In recognition of her achievements, in 2000 Tarbell was inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame, and two years later she was featured as part of a United States Postal Service stamp series commemorating women journalists. Her History of the Standard Oil Company stands as one of the most important works of journalism in the 20th century.

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Who exposed the unfair practices of Standard Oil?

Ida M. TarbellIda M. Tarbell, pictured here in 1904, made it the focus of her journalistic career to expose Standard Oil and Rockefeller's brutal business practices.

Which muckraker wrote about unfair practices of the Standard Oil Company?

Ida Minerva TarbellIda Tarbell, in full Ida Minerva Tarbell, (born November 5, 1857, Erie county, Pennsylvania, U.S.—died January 6, 1944, Bridgeport, Connecticut), American journalist, lecturer, and chronicler of American industry best known for her classic The History of the Standard Oil Company (1904).

What was Ida Tarbell famous for?

In her most famous work, The History of the Standard Oil Company (which oil historian Daniel Yergin called the “most important business book ever written”), Miss Tarbell revealed, after years of painstaking research, the illegal means used by John D. Rockefeller to monopolize the early oil industry.

What were the unfair practices of the Standard Oil Company?

The Department of Justice filed a federal antitrust lawsuit against Standard in 1909, contending that the company restrained trade through its preferential deals with railroads, its control of pipelines and by engaging in unfair practices like price-cutting to drive smaller competitors out of business.

Who wrote the history of Standard Oil?

Ida TarbellThe History of the Standard Oil Company / AuthorThe History of the Standard Oil Company is a 1904 book by journalist Ida Tarbell. It is an exposé about the Standard Oil Company, run at the time by oil tycoon John D. Rockefeller, the richest figure in American history.

Which of these writers helped bring about the breakup of the Standard Oil monopoly quizlet?

How did Ida Tarbell help end the Standard Oil monopoly? She wrote a series of articles exposing the corruption of Standard Oil.

What problems did Ida Tarbell expose?

Tarbell: Exposing Standard Oil. The rise of corporate trusts and monopolies in the Progressive Era spurred Congress to legislate regulations on business practices. The first such law, the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, met its greatest test in a case against the Standard Oil Company.

Why was Ida Tarbell bad?

Tarbell was wrong on both counts. Standard Oil's business practices were more ruthless than she had ever thought possible, and in her telling they became a page-turning tale of coercion, deception, and hubris. The key ingredient for Tarbell's success came from her unprecedented access to primary source material.

Why was Ida Tarbell considered an influential muckraker quizlet?

Why was Ida Tarbell considered an influential muckraker? She was responsible for revealing abuses of the Standard Oil Trust in 1904.

How did John D Rockefeller treat his workers?

Rockefeller was a bona fide billionaire. Critics charged that his labor practices were unfair. Employees pointed out that he could have paid his workers a fairer wage and settled for being a half-billionaire. Before his death in 1937, Rockefeller gave away nearly half of his fortune.

Why was she warned against writing about the Standard Oil Company?

Tarbell actually objected to the term, for she felt it belittled work she believed to be of historical importance. One result largely attributable to Tarbell's work was a Supreme Court decision in 1911 that found Standard Oil in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act.

What did The History of the Standard Oil Company expose?

Her best-known work, The History of the Standard Oil Company (1904), exposed the questionable business practices of John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Trust, which had been formed when Rockefeller combined all his corporations in an attempt to reduce competition and control prices in the oil industry.

What did Ida Tarbell wrote about Rockefeller?

Ida Tarbell concluded her series with a two-part character study of Rockefeller, where she described him as a “living mummy,” adding, “our national life is on every side distinctly poorer, uglier, meaner, for the kind of influence he exercises.” Public fury over the exposé is credited with the eventual breakup of ...

What did Ida Tarbell expose about Standard Oil?

One result largely attributable to Tarbell's work was a Supreme Court decision in 1911 that found Standard Oil in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act. The Court found that Standard was an illegal monopoly and ordered it broken into 34 separate companies. Bloodied, Rockefeller and Standard were hardly defeated.

What practices did Ida Tarbell expose?

Tarbell: Exposing Standard Oil. The rise of corporate trusts and monopolies in the Progressive Era spurred Congress to legislate regulations on business practices. The first such law, the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, met its greatest test in a case against the Standard Oil Company.

What did Lincoln Steffens expose?

Lincoln Steffens (1866-1936) was the most famous of the American muckraker journalists of the period 1903-1910. His exposés of corruption in government and business helped build support for reform.

Who was the journalist who published the history of the Standard Oil Company?

Her History of the Standard Oil Company, published in 1904, exposed the ruthless business methods of John D. Rockefeller. It was a landmark work of the journalism that became known as "muckraking.". Jacob Riis was born in Denmark in 1849 and emigrated to the United States in 1870.

Why did Roosevelt criticize journalists?

Roosevelt criticized journalists he thought focused too much on exposing corruption in business and government and not reporting on more positive news. Journalists of the time largely took the term as a compliment and adopted it as a badge of honor for exposing misconduct. C. Hassman, The Crusaders, 1906.

What did Ida Tarbell write about?

Ida Tarbell wrote about the monopolistic practices of John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company, which destroyed small businesses, including her father’s. Their reporting generated concern among members of the public and lawmakers, and in some cases, led to laws that addressed the problems they were covering.

What were the investigative techniques of the Muckrakers?

The investigative techniques of the muckrakers included poring over documents, conducting countless interviews, and going undercover . This differed from yellow journalism, where some leading newspapers sensationalized stories using imagination rather than facts. In several cases, muckrakers became activists themselves and spent years speaking throughout the country about their work and the need for reform.

What was the role of photojournalism in the Muckrakers?

Photojournalism played a key role in muckrakers’ work. Newspapers published stirring and stunning photographs of child labor and inhumane factory conditions. Drawings of the photographs would also appear in newspapers due to cost and the technology available at the time. See if you can make out the photo of the child in Riis’s Evening Sun article in the left column below.

What was the first book to lead directly to national legislation?

The project would become the book The Jungle , one of the first works of fiction to lead directly to national legislation. The Federal Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 established the agency that eventually became the Food and Drug Administration in 1930.

Who was Ida Tarbell?

After trying her hand at the more traditional woman’s job of teaching, Tarbell became a freelance writer and moved to Paris for over a decade before moving home and becoming editor of McClure’s Magazine, a new reform-minded publication, in 1894. Her History of the Standard Oil Company, published in 1904, exposed the ruthless business methods of John D. Rockefeller. It was a landmark work of the journalism that became known as "muckraking."

What does the Constitution say about the press?

The Constitution states that "Congress shall make no law . . . abridging the freedom . . . of the press."

Can independent dealers ship oil?

Standard Oil controls the docks and railroads so independent dealers cannot ship oil.

What led to the breakup of Standard Oil?

The resulting furor led to a Supreme Court case finding that Standard Oil was in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act, and that led to the breakup of Standard Oil in 1911.

Who was Jacob Riis?

Jacob Riis. Jacob A. Riis / Getty Images. Jacob Riis (1849–1914) was an immigrant from Denmark who worked as a police reporter for the New York Tribune, New York Evening Post and New York Sun in the 1870s–1890s.

What did the Muckrakers write about?

Muckrakers were journalists and investigative reporters who wrote about corruption and injustice between 1890 and 1920.

What was the name of the book that detailed the conditions of children in coal mines?

Spargo's investigative report on the terrible conditions of child labor in the United States called "The Bitter Cry of Children" was published in 1906. While many were fighting against child labor in America, Spargo's book was the most widely read and most influential as it detailed the dangerous working condition of boys in coal mines.

What did Wells write about?

Wells also wrote articles in the Memphis Free Speech and Chicago Conservator, criticizing the school system, demanding that women's suffrage include Black women, and vehemently condemning lynching. Although she never achieved her goal of Federal anti-lynching legislation, she was a founding member of the NAACP and other activist organizations.

When did Karl Marx become a socialist?

He became a socialist in the 1880s, and wrote and lectured about working conditions in England as a member of the nascent Labour Party. He emigrated to the United States in 1901 and became active in the Socialist party, lecturing and writing articles; he published the first full-length biography of Karl Marx in 1910.

Who is the author of Everything American Presidents?

He is the author of "The Everything American Presidents Book" and "Colonial Life: Government.". Muckrakers were investigative reporters and writers during the Progressive Era (1890–1920) who wrote about corruption and injustices in order to bring about changes in society.

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Early Life

  • Ida Minerva Tarbell was born on November 5, 1857, in the oil-rich region of northwestern Pennsylvania. Her father was an oil producer and refiner whose livelihood — like many others in the area — was negatively impacted by an 1872 price-fixing scheme concocted by the Pennsylva…
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Education

  • Tarbell attended Titusville High school and graduated with honors in 1875. The following year she enrolled at Allegheny College, where she pursued studies in biology but also began to develop a strong interest in writing. She graduated as the only woman in her class in 1880 and took a teaching job in Poland, Ohio. But after two years, she resigned from her post in pursuit of a writin…
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'Chautauquan' and 'Mcclure'

  • Returning to Pennsylvania, Tarbell became acquainted with the editor of a small magazine called The Chautauquanand was offered a job with the journal. She worked there for the remainder of the decade, holding various positions before becoming its managing editor. In 1890, however, she left both the paper and the country, moving overseas to Paris for several years to pursue gradua…
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'The History of The Standard Oil Company'

  • Like many young journalists of her era, Tarbell had become concerned by the proliferation of monopolies and trusts. In 1900 she proposed a series of articles in which she would use her experiences as a child during the South Improvement scandal to illustrate her points and spent the next several years deeply immersed in research on the Standard Oil Company and John D. R…
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Other Books: 'All in The Day’S Work'

  • Tarbell left McClure’s in 1906 and for the next nine years wrote for American Magazine, of which she was also a co-owner and co-editor. She authored numerous longer works as well, including The Business of Being a Woman (1912) and The Ways of Women (1915), whose traditional conceptions of gender roles put her at odds with the suffragist movement of the era. Tarbell’s le…
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Death and Legacy

  • In December 1943, at the age of 86, Ida Tarbell contracted pneumonia and was hospitalized in Bridgeport, Connecticut. She died there on January 6, 1944. In recognition of her achievements, in 2000 Tarbell was inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame, and two years later she was featured as part of a United States Postal Service stamp series commemorating women journali…
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