What is the history of Amenhotep III?
Amenhotep III, also called Amenophis III, king of ancient Egypt (reigned 1390–53 bce) in a period of peaceful prosperity, who devoted himself to expanding diplomatic contacts and to extensive building in Egypt and Nubia. Read More on This Topic. ancient Egypt: Amenhotep III.
What are some characteristics of Amenhotep's reign?
Another striking characteristic of Amenhotep's reign is the series of over 200 large commemorative stone scarabs that have been discovered over a large geographic area ranging from Syria ( Ras Shamra) through to Soleb in Nubia. Similarly, five other scarabs state that his wife Gilukhepa of Mitanni arrived in Egypt with a retinue of 317 women.
What did Amenhotep trade with the other great powers?
Amenhotep carried on lively diplomatic exchanges with the other great contemporary powers, as confirmed by the Amarna Letters (diplomatic archive of Amenhotep III and Akhenaton), which reveal that Egyptian gold was exchanged for horses, copper, and lapis lazuli from Asia.
What was Amenhotep's wife's father's name?
Amenhotep (III), ruler of Thebes, given life, and the Great Royal Wife Tiye; may she live; her father's name was Yuya, her mother's name Tuya. His Majesty commanded the making of a lake for the great royal wife Tiye—may she live—in her town of Djakaru. (near Akhmin). Its length is 3,700 (cubits) and its width is 700 (cubits).
What kind of a ruler was Amenhotep III?
Amenhotep III, also called Amenophis III, king of ancient Egypt (reigned 1390–53 bce) in a period of peaceful prosperity, who devoted himself to expanding diplomatic contacts and to extensive building in Egypt and Nubia.
What made Amenhotep III such an effective ruler?
Amenhotep III had the privilege of inheriting the rule of Egypt at its peak. With more territory than ever before, more wealth than anyone could imagine, and no wars to fight, Amenhotep III could entertain other pursuits. During his 37-year reign, he continued the efforts of those who came before him.
Who was Amenhotep 3 How was he a great king?
Amenhotep III was an incredibly successful pharaoh, but he was also set up for success. He was born at the beginning of the 14th century BCE to Tuthmosis IV, who was then pharaoh of Egypt. During his reign, Tuthmosis IV helped make Egypt a prosperous nation, bringing in gold and making alliances with other nations.
Why was Amenhotep III known as the controversial pharaohs?
He maintained the honor of Egyptian women in refusing requests to send them as wives to foreign rulers, claiming that no daughter of Egypt had ever been sent to a foreign land and would not be sent under his reign.
Who was the richest king in Egypt?
Amenhotep III | PBS. When Amenhotep III (reigned c1390 - 1352 BC) became Pharaoh in 1390 BC, Egypt had become the richest and most powerful nation on earth through war and conquest. The new king tried a different approach - diplomacy. In 1390 BC, Amenhotep III took the throne.
What was Amenhotep III legacy?
His legacy includes an elaborate mortuary temple intended for rituals and offerings to honor the pharaoh in perpetuity. Amenhotep III built on a grand scale. The mortuary temple, constructed not far from his tomb, was the grandest of all mortuary temple complexes built in Egypt.
When was Egypt the strongest?
The Egyptian Empire rose during the period of the New Kingdom (c. 1570- c. 1069 BCE), when the country reached its height of wealth, international prestige, and military might.
What was Amenhotep known for?
Amenhotep I, also called Amenophis I, king of ancient Egypt (reigned 1514–1493 bce), son of Ahmose I, the founder of the 18th dynasty (1539–1292 bce). He effectively extended Egypt's boundaries in Nubia (modern Sudan). The biographies of two soldiers confirm Amenhotep's wars in Nubia.
Did Amenhotep III worship the Aten?
Amenhotep III seems to have actively encouraged the worship of Aten, stressing solar worship in many of his extensive building works. In fact, one of that king's epithets was Tjekhen-Aten, or 'radiance of Aten', a term which was also used in several other contexts during his reign.
Who was the cruelest pharaoh?
AkhenatenAkhenaten Amenhotep IVAmenophis IV, Naphurureya, IkhnatonStatue of Akhenaten at the Egyptian MuseumPharaohReign1353–1336 BC 1351–1334 BC (18th Dynasty of Egypt)12 more rows
What gods did Amenhotep III worship?
Amenhotep III's primary devotion, however, was to Amun-Ra, a combination of Thebes' deity Amun and the northern Egyptian sun god Ra. According to an inscription describing the pharaoh's conception, Amun disguised himself as Thutmose IV and entered the queen's bedchamber.
How do you pronounce Amenhotep III?
0:051:01How To Say Amenhotep - YouTubeYouTubeStart of suggested clipEnd of suggested clipAmen hotep aumenta aumentar a aumentar amen hotep comenius.MoreAmen hotep aumenta aumentar a aumentar amen hotep comenius.
Who was the 3rd pharaoh of Egypt?
Ramesses IIIReign1186–1155 BC (20th Dynasty)PredecessorSetnakhteSuccessorRamesses IVRoyal titulary11 more rows
How did Amenhotep III become pharaoh?
Towards the beginning of the 14th century BCE, Amenhotep III became pharaoh after his father, Thutmosis IV, died. He was the ninth pharaoh in the 18th dynasty of New Kingdom Egypt. He was only 12 years old when he took over this role. Amenhotep married Tiye, whom he made his chief queen when he took the throne.
What was King Tut king of?
King Tutankhamun (Tutankhamen or simply King Tut) ruled Egypt as pharaoh for 10 years until his death at age 19, around 1324 B.C. Though his rule was notable for reversing the religious reforms of his father Akhenaten, Tutankhamun's legacy was largely negated by his successors.
Who were the 3 important pharaohs during the New Kingdom period and why were they famous?
After Kamose and Ahmose (with their father, Seqenenre Tao) successfully defeated the Hyksos, Ahmose founded the 18th Dynasty in Egypt, and the New Kingdom began. Notable pharaohs of the New Kingdom include Hatshepsut, Akhenaten and Ramses the Great.
How many lions did Amenhotep III kill?
Their lengthy inscribed texts extol the accomplishments of the pharaoh. For instance, 123 of these commemorative scarabs record the large number of lions (either 102 or 110 depending on the reading) that Amenhotep III killed "with his own arrows" from his first regnal year up to his tenth year.
What year did Amenhotep III die?
Amenhotep III's highest attested regnal date is Year 38 , which appears on wine jar-label dockets from Malkata. He may have lived briefly into an unrecorded Year 39, dying before the wine harvest of that year. Foreign leaders communicated their grief at the pharaoh's death, with Tushratta saying:
How tall is the statue of Tiye?
This huge sculpture, that is seven meters high, shows Amenhotep III and Tiye seated side by side, "with three of their daughters standing in front of the throne—Henuttaneb, the largest and best preserved, in the centre; Nebetah on the right; and another, whose name is destroyed, on the left.".
What did Amenhotep suffer from?
Scientists believe that in his final years he suffered from arthritis and became obese. It has generally been assumed by some scholars that Amenhotep requested and received, from his father-in-law Tushratta of Mitanni, a statue of Ishtar of Nineveh —a healing goddess—in order to cure him of his various ailments, which included painful abscesses in his teeth. A forensic examination of his mummy shows that he was probably in constant pain during his final years due to his worn and cavity-pitted teeth. However, more recent analysis of Amarna letter EA 23 by William L. Moran, which recounts the dispatch of the statue of the goddess to Thebes, does not support this popular theory. The arrival of the statue is known to have coincided with Amenhotep III's marriage with Tadukhepa, Tushratta 's daughter, in the pharaoh's 36th year; letter EA 23's arrival in Egypt is dated to "regnal year 36, the fourth month of winter, day 1" of his reign. Furthermore, Tushratta never mentions in EA 23 that the statue's dispatch was meant to heal Amenhotep of his maladies. Instead, Tushratta merely writes,
How long did Amenhotep rule Egypt?
According to different authors, he ruled Egypt from June 1386 to 1349 BC, or from June 1388 BC to December 1351 BC /1350 BC , after his father Thutmose IV died. Amenhotep III was Thutmose's son by a minor wife, Mutemwiya.
What is the name of the temple in WV22?
WV22. Monuments. Malkata, Mortuary Temple of Amenhotep III, Colossi of Memnon. Amenhotep I II ( Ancient Egyptian: imn-ḥtp (.w) " Amun is Satisfied"; Hellenized as Amenophis III), also known as Amenhotep the Magnificent, was the ninth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty.
Why was the statue of Amenhotep III sent to Egypt?
The likeliest explanation is that the statue was sent to Egypt "to shed her blessings on the wedding of Amenhotep III and Tadukhepa, as she had been sent previously for Amenhotep III and Gilukhepa .".
What territory did Amenhotep fight?
In the fifth year of his reign, Amenhotep conducted campaigns against a territory called Akuyata in Nubia. Thereafter his reign was peaceful, except for some disturbances in the Nile Riverdelta, which Amenhotep, son of Hapu, the king’s most prominent official, quelled by carefully regulating access into Egypt by land and sea.
What did Amenhotep exchange for?
Amenhotep carried on lively diplomatic exchanges with the other great contemporary powers, as confirmed by the Amarna Letters (diplomatic archive of Amenhotep III and Akhenaton), which reveal that Egyptian gold was exchanged for horses, copper, and lapis lazuli from Asia. He contracted political marriages with the sisters and daughters ...
What is the scarab of Amenhotep III?
Scarab commemorating the marriage of Amenhotep III and Queen Tiy, 18th dynasty (1539–1292 bce ); in the Oriental Institute, Chicago. Courtesy of The Oriental Institute of The University of Chicago. Utilizing the talents of Amenhotep, son of Hapu, the king engaged in a great construction program, which included his own mortuary temple in western ...
What did the King of Nubia build?
The king also built the main portions of the temple at Luxorand a pylonin the temple at Karnak, both in ancient Thebes. He also constructed many buildings in Memphis.
What was Amenhotep's most famous campaign?
In the fifth year of his reign, Amenhotep conducted campaigns against a territory called Akuyata in Nubia. Thereafter his reign was peaceful, except for some disturbances in the Nile River delta, which Amenhotep, son of Hapu, the king’s most prominent official, quelled by carefully regulating access into Egypt by land and sea.
Where is the Colossi of Memnon?
The Colossi of Memnon at Madīnat Habu in Thebes, Egypt.
Who was Thutmose IV's son?
Thutmose IV’s son Amenhotep III (ruled 1390–53 bce) acceded to the throne at about the age of 12. He soon... Amenhotep III in his early years enjoyed hunting in the tradition of his father, Thutmose IV, and grandfather, Amenhotep II, and on two occasions issued large commemorative scarabs to proclaim several of his feats.
What was the divine birth of the Pharaoh?
The “divine birth” of the pharaoh was accepted in mythology. Amenhotep III’s dedication to depicting it so brazenly was almost bold. He thought highly of himself and his role as the divine pharaoh. The Temple at Luxor grew exponentially after Amenhotep III’s rule. Later pharaohs would add to his designs, slowly making them their own. The temple still stands as a tourist attraction that probably sees as much worship now as it did when it was the religious center of Luxor.
What were Amenhotep III's accomplishments?
The accomplishments of Amenhotep III are often overlooked among 18th Dynasty Egyptian pharaohs. He didn’t conquer new territories like his great-grandfather, nor did he begin heretical reforms like his son. He also never left behind a king’s ransom of riches like his grandson. Instead, his peaceful reign helped secure Egypt’s position in the ancient world . Art became more important than ever, while culture and religion reformed and flourished under his guiding hand. Many of his building projects, such as the Temple at Luxor and the Colossi of Memnon, are representative of ancient Egypt as a whole.
What are the statues of Memnon?
These statues were created to represent Amenhotep III. They flank the causeway leading to his mortuary temple — or where his mortuary temple used to stand.
Why was the Amenhotep temple destroyed?
This temple, meant to honor Amenhotep III’s life and accomplishments, was destroyed during the 19th Dynasty. Floods from the Nile River eventually wore the temple down and not much of it remains. When it was built, however, it was said to be the largest mortuary temple constructed.
What was Amenhotep III's greatest achievement?
Though other pharaohs contributed to and finished the building, Amenhotep III began the project. His main achievement within the temple complex was the Colonnade. The columns here were the largest attempted at the time.
What did Thutmose III do?
While other pharaohs boasted of great military prowess, Thutmose III’s accomplishments were easy to observe in Egypt’s wealthy and growing empire.
Where did Amenhotep find the clay tablets?
Most of our information about Amenhotep’s trade relations and diplomatic marriages comes from the Amarna Letters. These clay tablets were excavated from Amarna, the capital established by Amenhotep’s revolutionary son Akhenaten. Their discovery in 1887 shed light on the rich relationship Egyptian pharaohs had with foreign powers. In all, 382 tablets were discovered at Amarna. The bulk of these tablets represent letters that were received from foreign powers. Of particular interest is the correspondence between Amenhotep III and King Kadashman-Enlil I of Babylonia. These tablets discuss the details of diplomatic marriages between the two rulers.
How many children did Tiy have?
Tiy gave birth to at least two sons and four daughters. When her first son died, her second son, Amenhotep IV, became the heir. Amenhotep IV later changed his name to Akhnaton after he ascended to the throne.
What was Amenhotep III's purpose?
His reign was marked by unprecedented prosperity, political stability, and the creation of some of ancient Egypt’s most magnificent complexes, including an elaborate mortuary temple intended for rituals and offerings to honor the pharaoh in perpetuity. Amenhotep III had many wives.
What did Amenhotep III do?
During the reign of Amenhotep III, Egypt began to export her culture and goods throughout the Mediterranean and the Near East. The pharaoh was in regular correspondence with the Babylonians, the Mitanni, and the Arzawa.
How long did Amenhotep rule Egypt?
ca. 1390 BCE – 1352 BCE. Amenhotep III ruled Egypt for nearly four decades, until his death around 1352 BCE at the age of 48. When he became pharaoh, he inherited a wealthy, powerful state, in part due to the military success of his grandfather, Tuthmoses III. Many scholars say Amenhotep III ruled during the cultural and political apex ...
Where was Amenhotep III's diplomatic correspondence found?
Examples of Amenhotep III’s diplomatic correspondence with the rulers of Assyria, Mitanni, Babylon, and Hatti were discovered in the Amarna Letters. Image: RC 1059 Ring of Amenhotep III at the Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum.
Who was Amenhotep's wife?
Amenhotep III had many wives. He particularly favored his Great Royal Wife Queen Tiy. Queen Tiy was not royal, however she was the daughter of Yuya, a powerful military leader; therefore, their marriage formed an important political alliance. Tiy gave birth to at least two sons and four daughters.
What was Amenhotep III's most famous structure?
His most famous structure was Luxor or the Temple of Amun. Today, this is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Egypt. After 40 years of reign as a Pharaoh in Egypt, Amenhotep III died from an unexplainable illness. He left his wife Tiye to live with their son Akhenaten.
How did Amenhotep III die?
Today, this is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Egypt. After 40 years of reign as a Pharaoh in Egypt, Amenhotep III died from an unexplainable illness. He left his wife Tiye to live with their son Akhenaten.
How many wives did Amenhotep III have?
Amenhotep III was made Pharaoh at a young age of 12. He had about 317 wives, but his favourite was Tiye. She was Yuya’s daughter, a high official of his father. Queen Tiye was of Nubian descent. They were married when Amenhotep III was just around 11 to 12 years of age.
How many kingdoms are there in the Bible?
Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt are subdivided into three kingdoms in the Bible timeline with World History, the old kingdom, the middle kingdom and the new kingdom. Pharaoh as a word originated from Egyptian word ‘per-aa’ that means the ‘great house’ or the royal palace. Only in the new kingdom was it used to refer to the King.
What is Amenhotep's name?
He was also called Amenophis and his name Amenhotep means Amun, one of the gods in Egypt. Throughout his 40 years of reign, he had built incredible statues. As a benevolent leader to his people at a time when Egypt was at its finest, Amenhotep the III was a magnificent ruler. Amenhotep III was the son of Thutmose IV and Queen Mutmewiya who was ...
What was the Pharaoh's role in the Egyptians?
The Pharaoh was the commander-in-chief of his army, and the leader to maintain “Maat” or divine order. Without the Pharaoh, the ancient Egyptians believed there would be chaos in the land. The history of Ancient Egypt has recorded several Pharaohs although only a few have achieved significance across the timeline.
Who was the first wife of the Pharaohs?
Queen Tiye was the first Pharaohs wife who had official acts giving an impression of her intelligence. Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye had a son named Akhenaten who later inherited the throne after the death of Amenhotep III. Amenhotep III leadership was a peaceful reign.
How old was Amenhotep when he died?
Inscribed clay dockets from the Malkata palace carry dates into at least Year 38 of Amenhotep’s reign, implying that he may have died in his 39th regnal year when he would have been about 45 years old.
Who was Amenhotep III?
Amenhotep III’s long reign of almost 40 years was one of the most prosperous and stable in Egyptian history. His great-grandfather, Tuthmosis III, had laid the foundations of the Egyptian empire by his campaigns into Syria, Nubia and Libya. Hardly any military action was called for under Amenhotep III, and such little as there was, in Nubia, was directed by his son and viceroy of Kush, Merymose.
Amenhotep III (Ancient Egyptian: jmn-ḥtp(.w), Amānəḥūtpū pronounced [ʔaˈmaːnəʔ ˈħutpu], "Amun is Satisfied"; Hellenized as Amenophis III), also known as Amenhotep the Magnificent or Amenhotep the Great, was the ninth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty. According to different authors, he ruled Egypt from June 1386 to 1349 BC, or from June 1388 BC to December 1351 BC/1350 BC, after his father Thutmose IV died. Amenhotep was Thutmose's son by a minor wife,
Family and early life
Amenhotep was the son of Thutmose IV and his minor wife Mutemwiya. He was born probably around 1401 BC. Later in his life, Amenhotep commissioned the depiction of his divine birth to be displayed at Luxor Temple. Amenhotep claimed that his true father was the god Amun, who had taken the form of Thutmose IV to father a child with Mutemwiya.
In Regnal Year 2, Amenhotep married Tiye, the daughter of Yuya and Thuya. Tiye was Great Royal …
Life and reign
Amenhotep probably became pharaoh when he was between the ages of 6 and 12. While it is likely that a regent would have ruled until he came of age, none is attested to in the surviving records. In Regnal Year 11, Amenhotep commanded the construction of an artificial lake at Tiye's hometown of Djakaru. He then celebrated a Festival of Opening the Lake in the third month of Inundation, day sixteen, and rowed the royal barge Aten-tjehen on the lake. This event was com…
Thutmose, the eldest son of Amenhotep with his wife Tiye, spent at least part of his life as the Crown Prince. However, Thutmose predeceased his father and Amenhotep was ultimately succeeded by his second son, also named Amenhotep.
It has long been theorized that Amenhotep III shared a coregency with his son and successor, Amenhotep IV (later called Akhenaten). Writing in 1998, Lawrence Berman claimed that propone…
Amenhotep's greatest attested regnal date is Year 38, which appears on wine jar-label dockets from Malkata. He may have lived briefly into an unrecorded Year 39 and died before the wine harvest of that year. Reliefs from the wall of the temple of Soleb in Nubia and scenes from the Theban tomb of Kheruef, Steward of the King's Great Wife, Tiye, depict Amenhotep as a visibly weak and sick figure. Scientists believe that in his final years he suffered from arthritis and beca…
Monuments and legacy
Amenhotep has the distinction of having the most surviving statues of any Egyptian pharaoh, with over 250 of his statues having been discovered and identified. Since these statues span his entire life, they provide a series of portraits covering the entire length of his reign.
When Amenhotep died, he left behind a country that was at the very height of its power and influence, commanding immense respect in the international world; however, he also bequeathe…
• Colossal red granite statue of Amenhotep III
• Colossal quartzite statue of Amenhotep III
• History of ancient Egypt
• Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt Family Tree
1. ^ Moran 1992, p. 7.
2. ^ Leprohon 2013, pp. 102–104.
3. ^ Clayton 1994, p. 112.
4. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,