Knowledge Builders

what are the basics of pharmacology

by Guillermo Strosin Published 2 years ago Updated 1 year ago
image

Basics of pharmacology

  1. Basics of PHARMACOLOGY
  2. • The word Pharmacology is derived from Greek words pharmakon (=drug= remedy= to do good) and logos (= a study = science)
  3. BASIC PHARMACOLOGY • Definition: Pharmacology is a subject of medical science which deals with the study of drugs or medicine that interact with the living system through chemical processes, ...

More items...

Abstract. General Pharmacology consists of two fields of interest, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. The most important concept in pharmacodynamics is the dose-response relationship, which describes the dependence of the effect of a drug from its concentration at its receptor.

Full Answer

What do you learn in pharmacology?

  • The mechanism of action for the class of drug.
  • Properties or effects that are common to all drugs in the class.
  • Is (are) the drug (s) the drug of choice for some disorder or symptom?
  • Name recognition—what drugs are in this class?
  • Unique features about single drugs in the class.
  • Are there any side effects (rare or not) that may be fatal?

More items...

What are the four main classes of drugs?

  • (1) Central Nervous System (CNS) Depressants. CNS depressants slow down the operations of the brain and the body. ...
  • (2) CNS Stimulants. CNS stimulants accelerate the heart rate and elevate the blood pressure and "speed-up," or over-stimulate, the body.
  • (3) Hallucinogens. ...
  • (4) Dissociative Anesthetics. ...
  • (5) Narcotic Analgesics. ...
  • (6) Inhalants. ...
  • (7) Cannabis. ...

How to prepare for Pharmacology?

In short:

  • Read what you need to learn. Read the text carefully a few times, so you know how much you have to learn and what you have to learn.
  • find and mark definitions. Highlight the most important definitions, keywords and key phrases. …
  • Write your flashcards.

Is pharmacology a good major?

You are the only person who knows about the a drugs nature,its pharmacokinetics, its mechanism of action, adverse effects, toxicology etc. Job perspectives can be also very good, like you can work at a hospital, in pharmaceutical industries, and ofcourse academia. Pharmacology is an excellent subject, very interesting, with tons of job potential.

image

What are the four components of pharmacology?

This information can be used to improve the administration and use of medicines. There are four main components of pharmacokinetics: liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (LADME). These are used to explain the various characteristics of different drugs in the body.

What are the main topics of pharmacology?

Pharmacology - Important TopicsMechanism of drugs action and Drug resistance.Drugs Inhibiting Cell wall synthesis.Drugs inhibiting Protein synthesis.Antimetabolites, FQ and Miscellaneous.Antimycobacterial Antibiotics.Antifungal Antibiotics.Antiviral Antibiotics.Anti Malarial drugs.

What are the three principles of pharmacology?

Absorption: How the medicine gets into the body. Distribution: Where the medicine goes in the body. Metabolism: How the body chemically modifies the medicine. Excretion: How the body eliminates the medicine.

What are the 5 branches of pharmacology?

Terms in this set (5)Pharmacokinetics. what the body does with the drug after administration.Pharmacodynamics. biochemical and physical effects of drugs & how they work.Pharmacotherapeutics. use of drugs to prevent and treat diseases.Pharmacognosy. study of natural resources of drugs (plants, animals, etc)Toxicology.

Who is the father of pharmacology?

Jonathan Pereira (1804-1853), the father of pharmacology.

What are the two main aspects of pharmacology?

Pharmacology has two major branches: pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics.

What are types of pharmacology?

Pharmacology has two major branches: Pharmacokinetics, which refers to the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs. Pharmacodynamics, which refers to the molecular, biochemical, and physiological effects of drugs, including drug mechanism of action.

What is an example of pharmacology?

Clinical pharmacology is the application of pharmacological methods and principles in the study of drugs in humans. An example of this is posology, which is the study of how medicines are dosed. Pharmacology is closely related to toxicology.

What is the importance of pharmacology?

Pharmacology is there when you take medicine for a headache. Pharmacologists created hay fever tablets, antibiotics, cancer treatments, and many other medicines that millions of us use each day. Pharmacology is at the forefront of our fight to help ensure everyone has the opportunities to live healthy lives for longer.

How many drugs are there in pharmacology?

Drug StatisticsTotal Number of Small Molecule Drugs11993Total Number of Approved Small Molecule Drugs2721Total Number of Nutraceutical Drugs132Total Number of Experimental Drugs6696Total Number of Illicit Drugs2054 more rows

Who is the first pharmacologist?

Oswald Schmiedeberg (1838–1921) is generally recognized as the founder of modern pharmacology. The son of a Latvian forester, Schmiedeberg obtained his medical doctorate in 1866 with a thesis on the measurement of chloroform in blood.

What is the difference between pharmacy and pharmacology?

A pharmacist dispenses prescription medications and advises patients on their use. Pharmacology, a biomedical science, focuses on chemical drugs and how they affect the people and organisms that consume them. Pharmacologists are responsible for developing the drugs that pharmacists safely dispense to patients.

How do I study pharmacology Gpat?

0:2616:20How to prepare pharmacology for GPAT in easy way - YouTubeYouTubeStart of suggested clipEnd of suggested clipFact how many topics you have to study you have to study around forty to fifty topics. So whichMoreFact how many topics you have to study you have to study around forty to fifty topics. So which topic you should select in order to get the good score in the G.

How do I study pharmacology for NEET PG?

NEET PG Pharmacology – Tips and TricksStudy Smart.Follow a time-table.Clear your doubts.Practice well.Revise on time.Attempt mock tests.2 reading + 3 revisions before the exam are a must.Be confident.More items...

What are the two branches of pharmacology?

Pharmacology has two major branches: 1 Pharmacokinetics – This describes the activities or drug’s actions as it moves through the body. These activities include absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs. This branch of pharmacology is also concerned with a drug’s onset of action, peak concentration level, and duration of action. 2 Pharmacodynamics – Pharmacodynamics deals with the study of molecular, biochemical, and physiological effects of drugs, including drug mechanism of action. In simplest terms, it can be described as what the drug does to the body.

What is the study of the molecular, biochemical, and physiological effects of drugs?

Pharmacodynamics Pharmacodynamics deals with the study of molecular, biochemical, and physiological effects of drugs, including drug mechanism of action. In simplest terms, it can be described as what the drug does to the body. Others branches of pharmacology include clinical pharmacology, neuropharmacology, psychopharmacology, ...

What are drugs?

It is defined as any substance or product which when administered to a living organism, influences biological functions. Drugs can also be defined as any substance that is used or intended to be used to modify or explore physiological systems or pathological states for the benefit of the recipient.

What is the term for the process of a drug's action?

Pharmacokinetics – This describes the activities or drug’s actions as it moves through the body. These activities include absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs. This branch of pharmacology is also concerned with a drug’s onset of action, peak concentration level, and duration of action. ...

What are some pharmacologically active plants?

Some pharmacologically active principles or drugs derived from plant sources include digoxin and digitoxin (from Digitalis purpurea /foxglove plant), atropine (from Atropa belladonna ), quinine (from Cinchona ), tubocurarine (from Chondrodendron tomentosum) etc.

What are some examples of semi-synthetic drugs?

Examples of semi-synthetic medicine include heroin from morphine, bromoscopolamine from scopolamine, ampicillin from penicillin etc. g. Synthetic sources/chemical derivatives.

What are some examples of life saving drugs?

Several life-saving drugs have been derived from microorganisms. Examples include penicillin produced by Penicillium chrysogenum, streptomycin from Streptomyces griseus, chloramphenicol from Streptomyces venezuelae, neomycin from Streptomyces fradiae, bacitracin from Bacillus subtilis etc.

What is the study of interaction of drugs with living systems?

Pharmacology: the study of interaction of drugs with living systems.

What is a beta blocker?

Example: Beta 1 Blocker: Metoprolol Succinate (oral ) Drug Action : selective binding to cardiac muscle beta 1 adrenergic receptors that respond to norepinephrine (at higher doses, also inhibits bronchial and vascular smooth muscle by acting on beta 2 adrenergic receptors) to inhibit the binding of norepinephrine.

What is the study of the mechanisms of action of drugs and other biochemical and physiologic effects on the body?

Pharmacodynamics: The study of the mechanisms of action of drugs and other biochemical and physiologic effects on the body. Pharmacokinetics: The study of the movement of drugs throughout the body, including the processes of absorption, distribution, biotransformation or metabolism, and excretion. Potency of a Drug: The dose necessary ...

Why is it important to understand the pharmacology of perianesthesia?

A thorough understanding of the pharmacology of the drugs used in perianesthesia care is necessary to ensure the best outcomes in surgical patients. Anesthesia care continues to evolve, and the judicious use of a number of selective, potent drugs in various combinations represents the cornerstone of current practice.

Why is this chapter dedicated to an overview of drug interactions?

A significant portion of this chapter is dedicated to an overview of drug interactions, because modern anesthesia care requires balancing the administration of multiple drugs throughout the perianesthesia period.

What is the efficacy of a drug?

Efficacy of a Drug: Refers to the maximum effect that can be produced by a drug. Hyperreactivity: An abnormal reaction to an unusually low dose of a drug. For example, patients with Addison disease, myxedema, or dystrophia myotonica have hyperreactivity to unusually low doses of barbiturates.

What is the difference between an agonist and an antagonist?

Antagonists: Drugs such as naloxone (Narcan) that attach to a specific receptor and do not activate the receptor, but prevent an agonist or body chemical such as a neurotransmitter from stimulating the receptor.

What is anaphylaxis in medicine?

Hypersensitivity (Anaphylaxis): A drug-induced antigen-antibody reaction. The particular hypersensitivity reaction can be either an immediate (anaphylactic) or a delayed reaction. Hypersensitivity reactions can occur with succinylcholine, antibiotics, and many other drugs that are administered in the PACU (see Chapter 18).

What Is Pharmacology?

Did you read the directions carefully to decide when and how often to take the drug? Were you able to eat before you swallowed the pill? Did you have to have a prescription filled, or were you able to buy the medicine off the pharmacy shelf? Most of these directions were developed based on research and regulations. A whole field of investigation, called pharmacology, is responsible for making sure you are able to receive medications that will treat your ailment and not harm you.

What is the main goal of pharmacology?

The overall goal of pharmacology is to develop safe and effective drugs that provide a favorable benefit to ...

What is the difference between pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics?

Pharmacokinetics is concerned with what your body does with a drug. Pharmacodynamics is concerned with how the drug works on the body.

What is the study of drugs and concentrates on the safety and efficacy of medications before they are approved by the?

The FDA also requires several pharmacodynamic trials to determine how a drug works on the body before a drug can be approved. Pharmacology is the study of drugs and concentrates on the safety and efficacy of medications before they are approved by the FDA.

What is the second piece of pharmacology?

Pharmacodynamics is the second piece of pharmacology and is responsible for ensuring that the drug works like it is supposed to. Efficacy, or the ability to cause a favorable change, is the end goal for all drug development.

Why is pharmacokinetics important?

Pharmacokinetics is especially crucial for understanding the proper dose to take as well as the safety of a drug. Imagine that you currently take 2 medications. One medication is for your diabetes and another is for your blood pressure. And then you contract an infection that requires antibiotics.

What is pharmacokinetic testing?

Pharmacokinetic testing, which means testing to determine how the body handles a drug, is one of the first steps in the FDA regulatory process for getting a new drug approved. Pharmacodynamics is concerned with how the drug works on the body. When you take a medication, you expect a certain reaction to occur.

What is the basic of pharmacology?

Basics of pharmacology. 1. Basics of PHARMACOLOGY. 2. • The word Pharmacology is derived from Greek words pharmakon (=drug= remedy= to do good) and logos (= a study = science) 3. BASIC PHARMACOLOGY • Definition: Pharmacology is a subject of medical science which deals with the study of drugs or medicine that interact with ...

What is the branch of medical pharmacology?

• Medical Pharmacology: Branch of Pharmacology deals with the use of Drugs in human body for Diagnosis, Prevention, Suppression and Treatment of the Diseases. • Clinical Pharmacology: Deals with the Scientific study of Drugs ( Pharmacokinetics & Pharmacodynamic parameters) in the patients & also in the healthy persons for the safe & effective use of Drugs (Therapy).

What is the definition of posology?

26. Posology: Deals with dosage of Drug. Dose: Amount of drug or medicinal substance to be administered at one time is called dose Dosage: Determination of the amount , frequency and number of dose for a patient is called dosage. Therapeutic dose: Dose require to produce the optimal therapeutic effect is called therapeutic dose.

How long does phenobarbitone last?

100 mg of phenobarbitone would have a half life of greater than 100 years if it is not removed from the body by making some changes in its molecules .

What is the purpose of prodrug?

19. Prodrug The drugs which do not produce any pharmacological effect until they are chemically altered within the body. Purpose of prodrug:  To modify absorption ?  To modify distribution ?  To modify the duration of action ?  To reduce adverse effect ?  To overcome difficulties in Pharmaceutical formulation.? Examples- Castor oil, levodopa etc.

What is the term for the tendency of a drug to bind with a receptor?

Drug-Receptor Terminologies • Affinity: Affinity is the tendency of drug to bind with a receptor. • Efficacy: The effect produce by a drug is called efficacy. • Potency: The power of a drug to produce the desired effect is called potency. • Agonist: Drugs having affinity as well as efficacy are called agonist.

What is the process by which a drug enters the systemic circulation?

5. ABSORPTION OF DRUG The process by which the drug enters into the systemic circulation from the site of administration ( except intravenous or intra-arterial routes ) through the biological membrane is called absorption of drug . • In case of intravenous or intra-arterial administration the drug is not absorbed and it enters into the circulation directly .

What is the difference between pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics?

Pharmacokinetics is the study of a drug's movements in the body and can be described as what the body does to the drug, while pharmacodynamics is the study of a drug's action and effects on a body and can be described as what the drug does to the body. The administration of a drug in combination with other drugs or substances can cause a variety ...

What is the purpose of pharmacogenetics?

Pharmacogenetics: deals with the effect of genetic variations on drug metabolism and drug action. Clinical trials: phases of drug development, testing, and regulatory approval (occur after preclinical studies) Overview of clinical trial phases [1] [2] Clinical trial phase. Purpose.

How to find the difference in efficacy of a drug?

On an efficacy graph, the difference in efficacy of the two drugs is determined by the difference in the maximal effect exerted by each of them (show n on the y-axis ); d rugs with different efficacy will have different heights, with the difference in efficacy represented on the y-axis.

What is the bioequivalence of a drug?

Bioequivalence: Two proprietary preparations of a drug are said to be bioequivalent if they exhibit the same bioavailability when administered in equal doses. Abilities of chemical compounds.

How many half lives does a drug have to be eliminated?

Defects in renal, hepatic, or cardiac function can impair drug clearance. After 4 half-lives, more than 90% of the drug will be eliminated. Drugs and/or their metabolites are excreted from the body in one or more of the following ways: Renal elimination: mostly hydrophilic drugs.

What is the bioavailability of a drug administered intravenously?

Drugs administered intravenously have a bioavailability of 100%.

Do preclinical studies include human subjects?

Before clinical trials begin, drugs are first tested in preclinical studies. Preclinical studies do not include human subjects.

image

Branches of Pharmacology

Image
Pharmacology has two major branches: 1. Pharmacokinetics– This describes the activities or drug’s actions as it moves through the body. These activities include absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs. This branch of pharmacology is also concerned with a drug’s onset of action, peak concentrati…
See more on pharmapproach.com

What Are Drugs?

  • The word “drug” is derived from the old French word “drogue” which means a “dry herb”. It is defined as any substance or product which when administered to a living organism, influences biological functions. Drugs can also be defined as any substance that is used or intended to be used to modify or explore physiological systems or pathological states for the benefit of the recip…
See more on pharmapproach.com

Drug Nomenclature

  • Throughout the process of development, drugs may have several names assigned to them. These names are the drug’s chemical name, generic name, and brand name.
See more on pharmapproach.com

Routes of Drug Administration

  • Drugs can be administered through several routes, which are sometimes referred to as transitory passages. The major routes of administration include: 1. Oral route 2. Sublingual/ Buccal route 3. Rectal route 4. Topical route 5. Transdermal route 6. Inhalational route/ pulmonary route 7. Injection route e.g., subcutaneous (SC) injection, intramuscular (IM) injection, intradermal (ID) inj…
See more on pharmapproach.com

Effects of Drugs

  • Drugs have multiple effects on the body. The effect produced by drugs can be recognised only as a change in a function or process that maintain the existence of the living organism since all drugs act by causing changes in some known physiological functions and processes. Some of these effects are desirable and some are not. The therapeutic effect is the intended physiological effec…
See more on pharmapproach.com

References

  1. Aguwa, C. and Akah, P. (2006). How Drugs Act. In C. Aguwa and J. Ogbuokiri (Eds.), A Handbook of Pharmacology for Nursing and Allied Health Professions(pp. 2-7). Nigeria: Africana First Publishers...
  2. Alamgir, A. (2017). Therapeutic Use of Medicinal Plants and Their Extracts: Volume 1.Switzerland: Springer International Publishing AG.
  1. Aguwa, C. and Akah, P. (2006). How Drugs Act. In C. Aguwa and J. Ogbuokiri (Eds.), A Handbook of Pharmacology for Nursing and Allied Health Professions(pp. 2-7). Nigeria: Africana First Publishers...
  2. Alamgir, A. (2017). Therapeutic Use of Medicinal Plants and Their Extracts: Volume 1.Switzerland: Springer International Publishing AG.
  3. Edmunds, M. (2016). Introduction to Clinical Pharmacology (8th ed.). USA: Mosby.
  4. Galbraith, A., Bullock, S., Manias, E., Hunt, B. and Richards, A. (2013). Fundamentals of Pharmacology: An Applied Approach for Nursing and Health (2nd ed.).USA: Routledge.

1.Basics of Pharmacology - Videos & Lessons | Study.com

Url:https://study.com/academy/topic/basics-of-pharmacology.html

19 hours ago Pharmacology of medications is important to understand and be aware of when prescribing or caring for patients using medications. In this lesson, we will learn about the ADME of pharmacology. 10 ...

2.Videos of What Are The Basics Of Pharmacology

Url:/videos/search?q=what+are+the+basics+of+pharmacology&qpvt=what+are+the+basics+of+pharmacology&FORM=VDRE

36 hours ago  · Pharmacokinetics: The study of the movement of drugs throughout the body, including the processes of absorption, distribution, biotransformation or metabolism, …

3.1. Introduction to Pharmacology – Principles of …

Url:https://open.lib.umn.edu/pharmacology/chapter/introduction-to-pharmacology/

8 hours ago pharmacology. . Symptom management, physical recovery, and individual well-being can be strongly connected to the use of medications in a patient’s treatment plan. Before a student …

4.Basic principles of pharmacology | Clinical Gate

Url:https://clinicalgate.com/basic-principles-of-pharmacology/

7 hours ago Basics of PHARMACOLOGY. 2. • The word Pharmacology is derived from Greek words pharmakon (=drug= remedy= to do good) and logos (= a study = science) 3. BASIC …

5.What Is Pharmacology? - Definition & Principles

Url:https://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-pharmacology-definition-principles.html

15 hours ago 7 rows ·  · The action of a drug depends on multiple factors. Pharmacokinetics is the study of a drug's movements in the body and can be described as what the body does …

6.Basics of pharmacology - SlideShare

Url:https://www.slideshare.net/merunzz/basics-of-pharmacology

10 hours ago The Basics Pharmacology and Chinese Medicine. Basic pharmacology helps us to treat our patients by understanding the drugs they are taking and how they work and can affect Chinese …

7.Fundamentals of pharmacology - Knowledge @ AMBOSS

Url:https://www.amboss.com/us/knowledge/Fundamentals_of_pharmacology

3 hours ago

8.Introduction to Pharmacology - YouTube

Url:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r95HUvHa4VM

10 hours ago

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9