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what did the hopewell indians live in

by Alexandria Cummerata Published 3 weeks ago Updated 2 weeks ago
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The Hopewell Indians lived in villages along rivers and streams. They built dome-shaped houses covered with bark, animal hides, or woven mats. They got their food by hunting, fishing, and gathering wild nuts, fruits, seeds, and roots.

Full Answer

How did the Hopewell Indians get their name?

Their existence was short from about 100 B.C to 500 A.D. The Hopewell got their name from a land owner of a farm at the North Fork of Ohio's Paint creek in Chillocothe, Ohio, that had extensive earthworks on it. It was excavated by archaeologist in 1891. The farmer's name was Colonel M.C Hopewell.

What did Hopewell Indians make or build?

The Hopewell created some of the finest craftwork and artwork of the Americas. Most of their works had some religious significance, and their graves were filled with necklaces, ornate carvings made from bone or wood, decorated ceremonial pottery, ear plugs, and pendants.

What kind of food did Hopewell Indians eat?

These people were hunters, fishers, and gatherers of wild plant foods, but they also grew a number of domesticated plants in their gardens, including sunflower, squash, goosefoot, and maygrass. Archaeologists refer to this set of plants as the Eastern Agricultural Complex.

What did the Hopewell Indians trade?

The Hopewell culture participated in long-distance trading networks, acquiring copper from the upper Great Lakes, mica from the Carolinas, shells from the Gulf of Mexico, and obsidian from the...

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What did the Hopewell people live in?

A Hopewell culture settlement typically consisted of one or a few families living in rectangular houses with a nearby garden. These people were hunters, fishers, and gatherers of wild plant foods, but they also grew a number of domesticated plants in their gardens, including sunflower, squash, goosefoot, and maygrass.

Where did the Hopewell Indians live?

southern OhioHopewell culture, notable ancient Indian culture of the east-central area of North America. It flourished from about 200 bce to 500 ce chiefly in what is now southern Ohio, with related groups in Michigan, Wisconsin, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Pennsylvania, and New York.

What were Hopewell settlements like?

Hopewell settlements were small villages or hamlets of a few rectangular homes made of posts with wattle and daub walls and thatched roofs. The people raised crops including sunflower, squash, goosefoot, maygrass, and other plants with oily or starchy seeds.

What region were the Hopewell people at home?

The Hopewell tradition (also called the Hopewell culture) describes the common aspects of an ancient pre-Columbian Native American civilization that flourished in settlements along rivers in the northeastern and midwestern Eastern Woodlands from 100 BCE to 500 CE, in the Middle Woodland period.

What are the Hopewell best known for?

The Hopewell Indians are best known for the earth mounds they built. Like the Indians of the Adena culture who came before them, they built large mounds in which they buried the bodies of important people. They also created earthworks in geometric shapes such as circles, rectangles, and octagons.

Who built mounds?

Mound Builders were prehistoric American Indians, named for their practice of burying their dead in large mounds. Beginning about three thousand years ago, they built extensive earthworks from the Great Lakes down through the Mississippi River Valley and into the Gulf of Mexico region.

What did the Hopewell call themselves?

Hopewell wasn't a tribal name and no one knows what they called themselves. The Hopewell mounds were bigger than those of the Adena cultures and their burials involved more ceremony. Hopewell burials included putting ochre and other pigments on the body.

What crops did the Hopewell grow?

The Hopewell relied on farming as well as hunting, fishing, and gathering for food. They grew a variety of crops including squash and corn.

What happened to the Hopewell people?

The rapid decline of the Hopewell culture about 1,500 years ago might be explained by falling debris from a near-Earth comet that created a devastating explosion over North America, laying waste to forests and Native American villages alike.

What is the Hopewell religion?

Religion was dominated by shamanic practices that included tobacco smoking. Stone smoking pipes and other carvings evince a strong affinity to the animal world, particularly in the depictions of monstrous human and animal combinations.

Why did the Mound Builders disappear?

The most-widely accepted explanation behind the disappearances were the infectious diseases from the Old World, such as smallpox and influenza, which had decimated most of the Native Americans from the last mound-builder civilization.

What is the meaning of Hopewell?

Hopewell Origin and Meaning It is derived from Hopwell, from the Old English elements hop, meaning "valley," and well, "stream." Hopewell could easily be adapted into a first name, with Hope or Wells as nickname possibilities.

What happened to the Hopewell people?

The rapid decline of the Hopewell culture about 1,500 years ago might be explained by falling debris from a near-Earth comet that created a devastating explosion over North America, laying waste to forests and Native American villages alike.

What did the Hopewell call themselves?

Hopewell wasn't a tribal name and no one knows what they called themselves. The Hopewell mounds were bigger than those of the Adena cultures and their burials involved more ceremony. Hopewell burials included putting ochre and other pigments on the body.

What was the Hopewell religion?

Religion was dominated by shamanic practices that included tobacco smoking. Stone smoking pipes and other carvings evince a strong affinity to the animal world, particularly in the depictions of monstrous human and animal combinations.

Who were the descendants of mound builders?

Some of the modern tribes who are descendants of the Moundbuilders include the Cherokee, Creek, Fox, Osage, Seminole, and Shawnee. Moundbuilder culture can be divided into three periods. The first is the Adena.

What did Hopewell live in?

Hopewell settlements were small villages or hamlets of a few rectangular homes made of posts with wattle and daub walls and thatched roofs. The people raised crops including sunflower, squash, goosefoot, maygrass, and other plants with oily or starchy seeds.

Where did Hopewell live?

Hopewell culture, notable ancient Indian culture of the east-central area of North America. It flourished from about 200 bce to 500 ce chiefly in what is now southern Ohio, with related groups in Michigan, Wisconsin, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Pennsylvania, and New York.

What are some characteristics of the Adena and Hopewell cultures?

Adena Culture mounds were primarily conical-shaped mounds used exclusively for burial purposes. The Hopewell Culture also had burial mounds, but more often these burial mounds were located either inside or nearby massive scaled earthworks such as those that can be seen in Newark and Chillicothe.

Where is the Hopewell culture National Historical Park?

Guidebook on the Hopewell culture prepared for Hopewell Culture National Historical Park, Ft. Washington, Pennsylvania, National Park Service, Eastern National, 1999. Lepper, Bradley T. Ohio Archaeology: An Illustrated Chronicle of Ohio’s Ancient American Indian Cultures. Wilmington, Ohio, Orange Frazer Press, 2005.

What was Hopewell's culture?

The Hopewell culture participated in long-distance trading networks, acquiring copper from the upper Great Lakes, mica from the Carolinas, shells from the Gulf of Mexico, and obsidian from the Rocky Mountains. Magnificent works of art were crafted from these exotic raw materials, such as an elegant human hand effigy cut from mica and giant spear points chipped from obsidian. Hopewell artwork depicts various animals, with deer, bear, and birds appearing most frequently. Animal effigies--perhaps a guardian spirit of a shaman--were carved on the bowls of stone pipes so as to face the smoker.

Where was Hopewell located?

Who Were the Hopewell? "The Newark Earthworks". Re-creation of a Hopewell hamlet ( www.cerhas.uc.edu) The Hopewell culture flourished in Ohio and other parts of eastern North America during the Middle Woodland Period, possibly as early as 100 B.C.

What was Hopewell's type of settlement?

Hopewell settlements were small villages or hamlets of a few rectangular homes made of posts with wattle and daub walls and thatched roofs.

Why did the Hopewell end?

Some archaeologists characterize the end of the Hopewell as a cultural collapse because of the abandonment of the monumental architecture and the diminishing importance of ritual, art, and trade.

What was the end of Hopewell?

What caused this is unknown, but there was a major shift in the succeeding Late Woodland period settlements and subsistence. People lived in larger villages often surrounded by walls or ditches. Corn became more important and the bow and arrow were introduced. Some archaeologists characterize the end of the Hopewell as a cultural collapse because of the abandonment of the monumental architecture and the diminishing importance of ritual, art, and trade. Yet the population seems to have increased and it simply may be that villages became more self-sustaining and inwardly focused.

Where are the Hopewell burial mounds?

The largest set of Hopewell burial mounds is at the Mound City Group in Chillicothe. All three of these sites are National Historic Landmarks and are being considered for nomination as World Heritage sites. By A.D. 400, the Hopewell culture and its earthwork building were all but over.

What are the earthworks of Hopewell?

Earthworks constructed by the Hopewell culture were places of ceremony, not settlements. They include regular, geometrically shaped complexes and irregularly shaped hilltop enclosures. Geometric earthworks are more common and may be squares, circles, or octagons with associated individual mounds. There are also mortuary sites with earthworks ...

Where did Hopewell spread?

Similarly, the Havana Hopewell tradition was thought to have spread up the Illinois River and into southwestern Michigan, spawning Goodall Hopewell. (Dancey 114) The name "Hopewell" was applied by Warren K. Moorehead after his explorations in 1891 and 1892 of the Hopewell Mound Group in Ross County, Ohio.

What is the Hopewell tradition?

The Hopewell tradition (also called the Hopewell culture) describes the common aspects of an ancient pre-Columbian Native American civilization that flourished in settlements along rivers in the northeastern and midwestern Eastern Woodlands from 100 BCE to 500 CE, in the Middle Woodland period . The Hopewell tradition was not a single culture or society, but a widely dispersed set of populations connected by a common network of trade routes. This is known as the Hopewell exchange system.

What is the Havana Hopewell culture?

Havana Hopewell culture. The Havana Hopewell culture was a Hopewellian people in the Illinois and Mississippi river valleys in Iowa, Illinois, and Missouri.

What are the best surviving features of the Hopewell tradition?

Today, the best-surviving features of the Hopewell tradition era are earthwork mounds. Researchers have speculated about their purposes and debate continues. Great geometric earthworks are one of the most impressive Native American monuments throughout American prehistory, and were built by cultures following the Hopewell. Eastern Woodlands mounds typically have various geometric shapes and rise to impressive heights. Some of the gigantic sculpted earthworks, described as effigy mounds, were constructed in the shape of animals, birds, or writhing serpents. Due to considerable evidence and surveys, plus the good condition of the largest surviving mounds, more information can be obtained.

What did Hopewell society do?

Hopewell societies cremated most of their deceased and reserved burial for only the most important people. In some sites, hunters apparently were given a higher status in the community: their graves were more elaborate and contained more status goods.

How were the Hopewell settlements linked?

The Hopewell settlements were linked by extensive and complex trading routes ; these operated also as communication networks, and were a means to bring people together for important ceremonies.

Where is Hopewell in Kansas City?

Kansas City Hopewell. At the western edge of the Hopewell interaction sphere is the Kansas City Hopewell. The Renner Village archeological site in Riverside, Missouri, is one of several sites near the junction of Line Creek and the Missouri River. The site contains Hopewell and succeeding Middle Mississippian remains.

What did the Hopewell people live in?

Hopewell settlements were small villages or hamlets of a few rectangular homes made of posts with wattle and daub walls and thatched roofs. The people raised crops including sunflower, squash, goosefoot, maygrass, and other plants with oily or starchy seeds.

Where do Hopewell Indians live?

Hopewell culture, notable ancient Indian culture of the east-central area of North America. It flourished from about 200 bce to 500 ce chiefly in what is now southern Ohio, with related groups in Michigan, Wisconsin, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Pennsylvania, and New York.

Did the Hopewell live in Ohio?

Ohio Hopewell culture The greatest concentration of Hopewell ceremonial sites is in the Scioto River Valley (from Columbus to Portsmouth, Ohio) and adjacent Paint Creek valley, centered on Chillicothe, Ohio.

What style of homes did the Adena and Hopewell live in?

The Adena usually lived in villages containing circular houses with conical roofs, constructed of poles, willows, and bark, though some of them lived in rock shelters.

What is the Hopewell religion?

Religion was dominated by shamanic practices that included tobacco smoking. Stone smoking pipes and other carvings evince a strong affinity to the animal world, particularly in the depictions of monstrous human and animal combinations.

What is the Hopewell tribe known for?

The people who are considered to be part of the “Hopewell culture” built massive earthworks and numerous mounds while crafting fine works of art whose meaning often eludes modern archaeologists. Many Hopewell sites are located in what is now southern Ohio.

Why did the moundbuilders build mounds?

Beginning around 1600 BC and continuing though to around 1000 AD, native peoples living in the interior of the eastern United States constructed dome shaped mounds from either earth or fresh water mussel shells at locations where they congregated seasonally to fish, harvest shellfish or hunt.

What did the Hopewell Indians do?

The Hopewell Indians are best known for the earth mounds they built. Like the Indians of the Adena culture who came before them, they built large mounds in which they buried the bodies of important people. They also created earthworks in geometric shapes such as circles, rectangles, and octagons.

What did the Hopewell culture eat?

Hopewell villages lay along rivers and streams. The inhabitants raised corn (maize) and possibly beans and squash but still relied upon hunting and fishing and the gathering of wild nuts, fruits, seeds, and roots.

What are some interesting facts about the Adena and Hopewell Indians?

Historically, the Hopewell followed the Adena, and their cultures had much in common. Earthen mounds built for burial and ceremonial purposes were a prominent feature of both cultures.

What did the Adena people do?

The Adena people were primarily hunter-gatherers, but they also farmed. Among other things, they planted squash , gourds, sunflowers and maize. They had a high-functioning society in order to build the extensive earthworks. Cremation was a common form of funerary practice, but they buried notable people in the mounds.

What were earthen mounds built for?

Earthen mounds built for burial and ceremonial purposes were a prominent feature of both cultures. They were part of a larger group known as the Moundbuilders that covered a large area in the Southeast and Midwest.

What is the name of the Ohio estate?

Governor Thomas Worthington's Ohio estate, Adena, is the source of the name. The Worthington estate featured a large mound typical of the cultures' burial mounds. Adena refers to dozens of cultures, and isn’t the name of a tribe; no one knows what they called themselves.

Where is the Adena?

The Adena were part of the Eastern Woodland culture that flourished from approximately 800 B.C. to A.D. 100 in the central Ohio Valley, as well as in the current states of Indiana, Kentucky, West Virginia and Pennsylvania. Governor Thomas Worthington's Ohio estate, Adena, is the source of the name. The Worthington estate featured ...

Was Hopewell a tribe?

100 but traces of their culture disappear around A.D. 500. Hopewell wasn’t a tribal name and no one knows what they called themselves.

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Overview

Politics and hierarchy

The Hopewell inherited from their Adena forebears an incipient social stratification. This increased social stability and reinforced sedentism, social stratification, specialized use of resources, and probably population growth. Hopewell societies cremated most of their deceased and reserved burial for only the most important people. In some sites, hunters apparently were given a higher status in the community: their graves were more elaborate and contained more status goods.

Origins

Although the origins of the Hopewell are still under discussion, the Hopewell culture can also be considered a cultural climax.
Hopewell populations originated in western New York and moved south into Ohio, where they built upon the local Adena mortuary tradition. Or, Hopewell was said to have originated in western Illinois and spread by diffusion ... to southern Ohio. Similarly, the Havana Hopewell tradition wa…

Although the origins of the Hopewell are still under discussion, the Hopewell culture can also be considered a cultural climax.
Hopewell populations originated in western New York and moved south into Ohio, where they built upon the local Adena mortuary tradition. Or, Hopewell was said to have originated in western Illinois and spread by diffusion ... to southern Ohio. Similarly, the Havana Hopewell tradition wa…

Mounds

Today, the best-surviving features of the Hopewell tradition era are earthwork mounds. Researchers have speculated about their purposes and debate continues. Great geometric earthworks are one of the most impressive Native American monuments throughout American prehistory, and were built by cultures following the Hopewell. Eastern Woodlands mounds typically have va…

Artwork

The Hopewell created some of the finest craftwork and artwork of the Americas. Most of their works had some religious significance, and their graves were filled with necklaces, ornate carvings made from bone or wood, decorated ceremonial pottery, ear plugs, and pendants. Some graves were lined with woven mats, mica (a mineral consisting of thin glassy sheets), or stones. The Hopewell produced artwork in a greater variety and with more exotic materials than their pr…

Local expressions of Hopewellian traditions

In addition to the noted Ohio Hopewell, a number of other Middle Woodland period cultures are known to have been involved in the Hopewell tradition and participated in the Hopewell exchange network.
The Armstrong culture was a Hopewell group in the Big Sandy River Valley of northeastern Kentucky and western West Virginia from 1 to 500 CE. They are t…

Cultural decline

Around 500 CE, the Hopewell exchange ceased, mound building stopped, and art forms were no longer produced. War is a possible cause, as villages dating to the Late Woodland period shifted to larger communities; they built defensive fortifications of palisade walls and ditches. Colder climatic conditions could have driven game animals north or west, as weather would have a detrimental effec…

See also

• List of Hopewell sites
• Adena culture

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