What are the classifications of psychology?
Classification or is the cognitive process in which ideas and objects are recognised, differentiated and understood. Classification implies that objects are grouped into categories, usually for some specific purpose. Ideally, a category illuminates a relationship between the subjects and objects of knowledge.
What is theory based view of categorization?
Theory-based views of concepts claim that they are identified or intimately associated with miniature theories of how things in their target domain tend to function. These theories take the form of general causal-explanatory principles describing how the properties, objects, and events in the category hang together and how deeper or hidden ...
What is an example of social categorization?
- Individual mobility. When an individual does not view her group favorably, she can attempt to leave the current group and join one with a higher social standing. ...
- Social creativity. In-group members can enhance the social standing of their existing group by adjusting some element of the between-group comparison. ...
- Social competition. ...
Is clinical psychology is the largest subfield of psychology?
Clinical psychology is the largest subfield of psychology. T/F Dr. Leland can prescribe drugs in some situations and works with depressed women. He must be a psychologist.
What is an example of categorization in psychology?
For example, a person may be able to name tools or utensils, but not animals or fruits. These specific deficits point to a key organizational role for categorization in cognitive processing. Categorization is a process that occurs cross-culturally as well.
What is categorization in social psychology?
Social categorization is the process of categorization applied to people and/or as shaped by interactions with people. Categorization, even the categorization of physical objects, can be a social process that rests on learning and sharing categories.
What is categorization and an example of categorization?
Categorization is the ability and activity to recognize shared features or similarities between the elements of the experience of the world (such as objects, events, or ideas), organizing and classifying experience by associating them to a more abstract group (that is, a category, class, or type), on the basis of their ...
What are the examples of categorization?
Examples of activities include categorising words according to type, e.g. verb, noun, preposition; categorising functions, e.g. request, order, suggestion; categorising vocabulary by negative or positive.
What is the difference between categorization and stereotyping?
Stereotypes and prejudice may create discrimination. Stereotyping and prejudice begin from social categorization—the natural cognitive process by which we place individuals into social groups. Social categorization influences our perceptions of groups—for instance, the perception of outgroup homogeneity.
How do humans categorize?
Social categorization differs from other forms of categorization in that people tend to place themselves in a category , leading them to be partial to members of their own group (ingroup) relative to those from other groups (outgroup) in terms of social preferences, empathic responding, and resource distribution [ ...
What do you mean by categorization?
Categorization is the act of sorting and organizing things according to group, class, or, as you might expect, category. This noun is very similar in meaning to "assortment," "classification," and "compartmentalization."
What's the meaning of categorizing?
verb (used with object), cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing. to arrange in categories or classes; classify. to describe by labeling or giving a name to; characterize.
What is categorization in research?
Categorization is a major component of qualitative data analysis by which investigators attempt to group patterns observed in the data into meaningful units or categories. Through this process, categories are often created by chunking together groups of previously coded data.
Why is categorization an efficient way of thinking?
Categorization allows us to interpret new information more efficiently, and when we can more easily classify new objects, we can more readily react to the environment. The positives of categorical thinking outweighed the negatives—of which there are a few.
How does the brain categorize information?
The brain does not have one single “categorization area.” Categories are represented in a distributed fashion across the brain, and multiple neural systems are involved.
What is the difference between classification and categorization?
Classification involves a formalized, predefined system of organization while categorization is any grouping based on a similarity.
What is the process of categorizing?
Categorization is a process whereby we make sense of the world around us by separating things into different classes or groups. When we learn which categories that objects belong to, we also learn about relationships between those objects. Social categorization involves applying that same process to people, including ourselves.
What is the final aspect of social categorization?
The final powerful aspect of social categorization is making sense of self (Leonardelli & Toh, 2015, have recently proposed that self-categorization itself comes in three forms). SCT argued that people stereotyped themselves. That is, thinking of yourself as a group member entails stereotyping yourself as a member of that group. Self-stereotyping was believed to underpin the perception of interchangeability between self and other group members (a phenomenon that was named “depersonalization” in SCT, inviting unfortunate confusion with the unrelated construct of deindividuation, Zimbardo, 1969, that is replete with negative connotations that are beyond the scope of this article).
What is the optimal distinctiveness theory?
Brewer ( 1991) proposed optimal distinctiveness theory that postulates that the level of categorization adopted by social perceivers is determined by the balance of pressures to be distinctive and to be inclusive. The theory and much of the evidence it has generated is inconsistent with functional antagonism.
What is the process of coming to understand a thing by perceiving it to be similar to some things and
Categorization is the process of coming to understand a thing by perceiving it to be similar to some things and different from other things (McGarty, 1999 ). Social categorization is the process of categorization applied to people and/or as shaped by interactions with people. Categorization, even the categorization of physical objects, ...
What would happen if categories did not have the prospect of enduring over time?
However, if categories did not have the prospect of enduring over time, there would be no point in sharing them through language. Second, social categorization is the cognitive process of perceiving the groupings that exist in society (Hamilton & Sherman, 1996 ).
When a specific social categorization was salient, would a person think of themselves as a group
That is when a specific social categorization was salient a person would think of themselves as a group member, and act as one, and when no social categorization was salient then that same person would think of themselves, and act as, unique individuals.
Is social categorization more important than object categorization?
The study of social categorization has drawn heavily on the study of object categorization and many of the core insights from that field are relevant, but there are also some important differences that suggest social categorization is more, indeed much more, than object categorization.
Cognitive science view
In recent years categorization has moved from an area of philosophical speculation towards an area of cognitive scientific study. A number of testable theories have been generated and experimental progress has been made.
Since the research by Eleanor Rosch and George Lakoff in the 1970s, categorization can also be viewed as the process of grouping things based on prototypes - the idea of necessary and sufficient conditions is almost never met in categories of naturally occurring things.
Exemplar based theory
A cognitive approach accepts that natural categories are graded (they tend to be fuzzy at their boundaries) and inconsistent in the status of their constituent members.
What is social categorizing?
Social categorization refers to the way a person’s mind clusters together individuals who share important characteristics. A person mentally groups people on the basis of their demographic features (e.g., sex, age, ethnicity, or religion), personality and interests (e.g., extraverts, nerds), and occupation, to name some of the most common types of social categories. This process has several important functions. It provides a person with a way to organize and structure his or her understanding of the social world. For each meaningful social category, a person is likely to have some preconceptions about what members of the category are like. Rather than having to start from scratch in figuring other people out, a person often identifies the groups they belong to and then makes some starting assumptions about their characteristics, given these group memberships. If you learn that your new next-door neighbor is a lawyer, for example, you can start to form an impression just on the basis of this category membership.
Why are categories important?
Whether discussing people, objects, or events, categories are essential for mental functioning. Without them, people would not be able to make sense of the complex, multifaceted environment around them. By grouping similar items into categories, the world acquires structure and meaningfulness. This process of organizing and structuring the world into categories involves two related processes. First, when thinking about people who belong in a particular category, one mentally emphasizes their shared characteristics while minimizing their differences or unique individual characteristics. When one thinks of the category “nerds,” one thinks about the characteristics that are common to members of the category. Second, one also accentuates, or emphasizes, differences between different categories. When a person thinks of nerds, he or she thinks of the ways nerds are different from other comparable kinds of people (such as jocks or artsy types).
What is social categorizing?
Social categorization occurs when we think of someone as a man (versus a woman), an old person (versus a young person), a Black person (versus an Asian or White person), and so on (Allport, 1954/1979). Just as we categorize objects into different types, so we categorize people according to their social group memberships.
Why is it important to categorize others?
In some cases, we categorize because doing so provides us with information about the characteristics of people who belong to certain social groups (Lee, Jussim, & McCauley, 1995). If you found yourself lost in a city, you might look for a police officer or a taxi driver to help you find your way. In this case, social categorization would probably be useful because a police officer or a taxi driver might be particularly likely to know the layout of the city streets. Of course, using social categories will only be informative to the extent that the stereotypes held by the individual about that category are accurate. If police officers were actually not that knowledgeable about the city layout, then using this categorization would not be informative.
How do stereotypes and prejudices create discrimination?
Stereotypes and prejudice may create discrimination. Stereotyping and prejudice begin from social categorization—the natural cognitive process by which we place individuals into social groups. Social categorization influences our perceptions of groups—for instance, the perception of outgroup homogeneity. Once our stereotypes and prejudices become ...
Who demonstrated that people categorized others spontaneously?
Taylor, Fiske , Etcoff, and Ruderman (1978) demonstrated that people categorized others spontaneously. Even without any instructions to categorize, people nevertheless confused others by their sex. The conclusion is simple, if perhaps obvious: Social categorization is occurring all around us all the time.
Is categorizing others bad?
Although thinking about others in terms of their social category memberships has some potential benefits for the person who does the categorizing, categorizing others, rather than treating them as unique individuals with their own unique characteristics, has a wide variety of negative, and often very unfair, outcomes for those who are categorized.
Levels of Categorization
- Many items can be categorized hierarchically, and the following scheme is often used in describing this organization: Superordinate—The superordinate level is a broad, inclusive level in the hierarchical scale of categories (e.g., animal, vehicle). Often the superordinate level will consist of several basic-level categories. Basic—The basic-level category (e.g., cat, boat) is ofte…
Theories of Categorization
- Researchers continue to debate various theoretical approaches for describing categorization processes. Most theories can be classified as either similarity based or explanation based.
The Development of Categorization
- Questions about the development of categorization help us characterize how infants and children understand their worlds and provide information about the building blocks of adults’ cognitive skills. Current research explores some critical questions about how categorization and conceptual processing develop. For example, do infants first recognize basic-level categories, followed by el…
- Categorization is a fundamental aspect of cognition, and there is growing interest in the organization and mental representation of categories. Perceptual categorization is evident early in infancy. Preschool-aged children categorize adeptly, use concepts for inductive reasoning, and notice linguistic cues for categorization. During middle childhoo...