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what is the most common culture based language of distress

by Frederick Walsh Published 1 year ago Updated 1 year ago
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Full Answer

What is an example of cultural distress?

Cultural Concepts of Distress. Expressions of psychological problems are, in part, culturally specific, and behavior that is aberrant in one culture can be standard in another. For example, seemingly paranoid thoughts are to be expected in clients who have migrated from countries with oppressive governments.

When do you use culture as a distress code?

Using “culture” as distress code often arises in decision making on behalf of a seriously ill patient, when a surrogate or other family member expresses a view framed in cultural terms, or when a professional perceives something “cultural” concerning a decision-making process.

Are ‘culture-bound’ and ‘idioms of distress’ applied systematically?

However, we found that labels such as ‘culture-bound’ or ‘idioms of distress’ were not applied systematically. The same CCD, e.g. ataques de nervios, was described as a culture-bound syndrome, idiom of distress, and popular category by different researchers.

Are cultural concepts of distress related to psychiatric disorders?

Within the growing body of literature comparing cultural concepts of distress (CCD) and psychiatric disorders, there is a wide range of quality and epidemiological rigor. Twelve (27%) of the studies had medium quality based on the Systematic Assessment of Quality in Observational Research–Cultural Psychiatry Epidemiology (SAQOR-CPE) ranking system.

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What is a common culture based idiom of distress?

Specific Cultural Concepts of Distress Ataque de nervios (“attack of nerves”) Cultural prevalence: Latino, especially women from the Caribbean. Symptoms: Screaming uncontrollably, attacks of crying, trembling, and verbal or physical aggression; fainting or seizure-like episodes and occasionally suicidal gestures.

What are the three main categories of cultural concepts of distress?

This study's goal is to review strengths and limitations of literature comparing psychiatric categories with cultural concepts of distress (CCD) such as cultural syndromescultural syndromesIn medicine and medical anthropology, a culture-bound syndrome, culture-specific syndrome, or folk illness is a combination of psychiatric and somatic symptoms that are considered to be a recognizable disease only within a specific society or culture.https://en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Culture-bound_syndromeCulture-bound syndrome - Wikipedia, culture-bound syndromes, and idioms of distress.

Which of the following is true of cultural syndromes of distress?

Which of the following is true of cultural syndromescultural syndromesIn medicine and medical anthropology, a culture-bound syndrome, culture-specific syndrome, or folk illness is a combination of psychiatric and somatic symptoms that are considered to be a recognizable disease only within a specific society or culture.https://en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Culture-bound_syndromeCulture-bound syndrome - Wikipedia of distress? It refers to patterns of symptoms that tend to cluster together for individuals in specific cultural groups, communities, or contexts.

What is culture based syndrome?

In medicine and medical anthropology, a culture-bound syndrome, culture-specific syndrome, or folk illness is a combination of psychiatric and somatic symptoms that are considered to be a recognizable disease only within a specific society or culture.

Which of the following immigrant groups might have the highest rate of post traumatic stress disorder?

Some evidence points to higher rates of lifetime prevalence of PTSD among African Americans (8.7%) compared to non-Latino whites (7.4%) or Asians (4.0%).

What are cultural idioms?

Cultural idioms express the values of the nation to which they belong. Looking at these cultural expressions, we can have more or less ideas about those folks. Therefore, cultural idioms, such as idioms that exist in every subject, have an important place in our lives.

What are the five culture-bound syndromes?

culture-bound syndromeculture-bound syndromeIn medicine and medical anthropology, a culture-bound syndrome, culture-specific syndrome, or folk illness is a combination of psychiatric and somatic symptoms that are considered to be a recognizable disease only within a specific society or culture.https://en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Culture-bound_syndromeCulture-bound syndrome - Wikipedia Culture-bound syndromes include, among others, amok, amurakh, bangungut, hsieh-ping, imu, jumping Frenchmen of Maine syndrome, koro, latah, mal de pelea, myriachit, pibloktopibloktoPiblokto is a culture-specific hysterical reaction in Inuit, especially women, who may perform irrational or dangerous acts, followed by amnesia for the event. Piblokto may be linked to repression of the personality of Inuit women. The condition appears most commonly in winter.https://en.wikipedia.org › wiki › PibloktoPiblokto - Wikipedia, susto, voodoo death, and windigo psychosis.

What are culture-bound syndromes and provide at least one example?

Culture-boundCulture-boundIn medicine and medical anthropology, a culture-bound syndrome, culture-specific syndrome, or folk illness is a combination of psychiatric and somatic symptoms that are considered to be a recognizable disease only within a specific society or culture.https://en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Culture-bound_syndromeCulture-bound syndrome - Wikipedia disorders may involve somatic expressions (e.g., temporary loss of consciousness or involuntarily clenched teeth), cognitions (e.g., a belief that one's genitals are retracting into the body or a conviction that one has been abducted by extraterrestrial beings), or behaviors (e.g., extreme startle ...

Which of the following terms refers to cultural ways of expressing distress that provide shared ways of experiencing and talking about personal or social concerns?

Cultural idioms of distress are ways of expressing distress that may not involve specific symptoms or syndromes, but that provide collective, shared ways of experiencing and talking about personal or social concerns.

What is a culture-bound mental illness?

In medicine and medical anthropology, a culture-bound syndromeculture-bound syndromeIn medicine and medical anthropology, a culture-bound syndrome, culture-specific syndrome, or folk illness is a combination of psychiatric and somatic symptoms that are considered to be a recognizable disease only within a specific society or culture.https://en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Culture-bound_syndromeCulture-bound syndrome - Wikipedia, culture-specific syndrome, or folk illness is a combination of psychiatric (brain) and somatic (body) symptoms that are considered to be a recognizable disease only within a specific society or culture.

Is anxiety a culture-bound syndrome?

Extreme anxiety associated with sense of weakness, exhaustion, and the discharge of semen. This disorder is considered a culture-specific syndromeculture-specific syndromeIn medicine and medical anthropology, a culture-bound syndrome, culture-specific syndrome, or folk illness is a combination of psychiatric and somatic symptoms that are considered to be a recognizable disease only within a specific society or culture.https://en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Culture-bound_syndromeCulture-bound syndrome - Wikipedia because it primarily occurs in persons holding a "modern" set of cultural schemas.

Is PTSD a culture-bound syndrome?

When put into context PTSD becomes a culture and history bound syndromebound syndromeIn medicine and medical anthropology, a culture-bound syndrome, culture-specific syndrome, or folk illness is a combination of psychiatric and somatic symptoms that are considered to be a recognizable disease only within a specific society or culture.https://en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Culture-bound_syndromeCulture-bound syndrome - Wikipedia. It emerges in a war weary Europe dealing with the horrors of mechanised warfare a century ago. While European nations had waged war in the past, this four year long conflict was more brutal than ever seen before.

What is a cultural component of distress?

Description. cultural concepts of distress are defined in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed (DSM-5) as "ways cultural groups experience, understand, and communicate suffering, behavioral problems, or troubling thoughts or emotions" 1.

How does the DSM-5 account for cultural concepts of distress?

DSM-5 Cultural Concepts of Distress. Commonly reported symptoms include uncontrollable shouting, attacks of crying, trembling, heat in the chest rising into the head, and verbal or physical aggression.

Does the DSM-5 have a glossary of cultural concepts of distress?

The new manual also addresses cultural concepts of distress, which detail ways in which different cultures describe symptoms. In the Appendix, they are described through cultural syndromescultural syndromesIn medicine and medical anthropology, a culture-bound syndrome, culture-specific syndrome, or folk illness is a combination of psychiatric and somatic symptoms that are considered to be a recognizable disease only within a specific society or culture.https://en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Culture-bound_syndromeCulture-bound syndrome - Wikipedia, idioms of distress, and explanations.

What are the five culture bound syndromes?

culture-bound syndromeculture-bound syndromeIn medicine and medical anthropology, a culture-bound syndrome, culture-specific syndrome, or folk illness is a combination of psychiatric and somatic symptoms that are considered to be a recognizable disease only within a specific society or culture.https://en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Culture-bound_syndromeCulture-bound syndrome - Wikipedia Culture-bound syndromes include, among others, amok, amurakh, bangungut, hsieh-ping, imu, jumping Frenchmen of Maine syndrome, koro, latah, mal de pelea, myriachit, pibloktopibloktoPiblokto is a culture-specific hysterical reaction in Inuit, especially women, who may perform irrational or dangerous acts, followed by amnesia for the event. Piblokto may be linked to repression of the personality of Inuit women. The condition appears most commonly in winter.https://en.wikipedia.org › wiki › PibloktoPiblokto - Wikipedia, susto, voodoo death, and windigo psychosis.

Which is an example of a cultural concept of distress?

DSM-5 Cultural Concepts of Distress. Commonly reported symptoms include uncontrollable shouting, attacks of crying, trembling, heat in the chest rising into the head, and verbal or physical aggression.

What is a common culture based idiom of distress?

As a culturally available idiom, somatic symptoms express discomfort and distress in ways that are intelligible within the individual’s social milieu but may have different meanings to outsiders. Somatic idioms of distress commonly embody combinations of somatic, emotional, and social meanings.

What are cultural concepts of distress?

The term ‘cultural concept of distress’ is a new addition to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) series with the publication of DSM-5: ‘Cultural Concepts of Distress refers to ways that cultural groups experience, understand, and communicate suffering, behavioral problems, or troubling …

What is the concept of distress?

Noun. distress, suffering, misery, agony mean the state of being in great trouble. distress implies an external and usually temporary cause of great physical or mental strain and stress.

What is a culture-specific disorder?

In medicine and medical anthropology, a culture-bound syndrome, culture-specific syndrome, or folk illness is a combination of psychiatric and somatic symptoms that are considered to be a recognizable disease only within a specific society or culture.

Why are cultural codes important?

The cultural codes of a nation helps to understand the behavioral responses characteristic of that nation’s citizens. The key codes in understanding specific behaviors differentiate between religion, gender, relationships, money, food, health, and cultures.

Are there cultural differences in the prevalence of mental illness?

Mental illness can be more prevalent in certain cultures and communities, but this is also largely determined by whether that particular disorder is rooted more in genetic or social factors.

What is cultural distress?

cultural concepts of distress are defined in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , 5th ed (DSM-5) as "ways cultural groups experience, understand, and communicate suffering , behavioral problems, or troubling thoughts or emotions" 1

What are the symptoms of anxiety in Chinese medicine?

anxiety symptoms often associated with organ dysfunction in traditional Chinese medicine, for example "weak heart" may lead to hyper-vigilance of cardiac symptoms including dizziness, blurry vision, or tinnitus

When to use strong recommendations?

Strong recommendations are used when, based on the available evidence, clinicians (without conflicts of interest) consistently have a high degree of confidence that the desirable consequences (health benefits, decreased costs and burdens) outweigh the undesirable consequences (harms, costs, burdens).

Do cultural syndromes have analogues?

many cultural syndromes have analogues in other cultures, but with various idiomatic descriptions 1

Do recommendation panels have to disclose conflicts of interest?

All recommendation panel members must disclose any potential conflicts of interest (professional, intellectual, and financial), and will not be included for the specific panel if a significant conflict exists for the recommendation in question.

How can cultural concepts of distress improve global mental health services?

Epidemiology studies of cultural concepts of distress can improve global mental health services through improved detection of psychological distress, identification of risk groups and assessment of culturally salient intervention outcomes.

How many studies use the term "culture bound"?

Sixteen (35%) of the studies used the label ‘culture-bound’; nine studies (20%) used ‘idiom of distress’; and 23 studies had comparison of CCD with psychiatric disorders as a primary objective. For eight studies, the primary goal was to evaluate association with a risk factor or vulnerable group.

Why is CCD important?

CCD can be used to enhance screening and detection of mental health problems. – The CCD literature demonstrates an overlap with psychiatric disorders as well as identification of populations with emotional, behavioral, or cognitive problems with significant impairment that may not be captured by psychiatric diagnoses.

Why are psychiatric outcomes difficult to interpret?

Psychiatric outcome measures require special attention in cross-cultural research. If an instrument has not been validated in the local context, results are difficult to interpret. 107 Lack of association between CCD and the psychiatric measure may be due to using a non-validated instrument rather than cultural-exclusivity of the distress; 24 studies used instruments validated for the cultural group, and some provided psychometric properties for the instrument in that population. 54,61,66,79,92 When instruments have not been validated, then significant detail should be provided on how instruments underwent transcultural translation to achieve cross-cultural equivalence. 108,109

What are the keywords used to identify CCD?

To identify literature on CCD we searched MEDLINE/PubMed, applying the following keywords: ‘culture-bound’ or ‘culture bound’ or ‘idiom of distress’ or ‘idioms of distress’. To assure inclusion of popularly studied CCD, we combined the above search with a search of CCD listed in the DSM-5 glossary: ‘nervios’ or ‘dhat’ or ‘khyal’ or ‘kufungisisa’ or ‘maladi moun’ or ‘shenjing shuairou’ or ‘susto’ or ‘taijin kyofusho’). We limited psychiatric outcomes to common mental disorders (operationalized here as depression, anxiety-related conditions including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and panic disorder, and somatization-related conditions) because of their significant burden of disease, the breadth of research on CCD and common mental disorders, and feasibility of assessing common mental disorders through self-report. In contrast, psychosis-related conditions have shown poor reliability and low detection through self-report cross-culturally. 39,40 In our preliminary searches for substance use disorders, eating disorders and developmental disorders, we identified a limited number of studies precluding synthesis of findings. The psychiatric disorder search terms thus included the following: ‘depression’ or ‘depression, postpartum’ or ‘PTSD’ or ‘stress disorders, post-traumatic’ or ‘fatigue syndrome, chronic’ or ‘fatigue’ or ‘anxiety disorders’ or ‘anxiety’ or ‘panic disorder’ or ‘panic attack’ or ‘somatoform disorders’ or ‘somatic complaints’. Searches were limited to English-language peer-reviewed journal publications. In addition, reference sections of previous reviews on culture-bound syndromes were searched, 41–48 and reference sections of articles identified in the search were used to locate additional articles. The initial searches was performed in November 2012 and repeated for new references in March 2013 and September 2013.

Is PTSD a comorbidity?

For example, PTSD and depression are often comorbid. If CCD have significant associations with PTSD, it may be that the associations are better explained by associations with depression. Controlling for comorbidities through selection criteria and analysis is crucial. In a study of social phobia and taijin-kyofu-sho (TKS), a CCD in Japan and Korea, the researchers excluded persons with major depressive disorders, bipolar affective disorder, psychosis and substance misuse to assure that associations between TKS and social phobia were not the result of mutual associations with other disorders. 65 In a study of a fatigue CCD in Mongolia, yadargaa associated significantly with a scale for chronic fatigue syndrome in bivariate analysis. However, when other psychiatric conditions were entered into the analysis, yadargaa associated significantly with depression but the association with chronic fatigue syndrome was no longer significant. 78 A study in Uganda among war-affected youth stands out in the CCD literature because multiple CCD were addressed in the same population. 57 This allowed for testing CCD comorbidities in addition to psychiatric comorbidities. Half of the studies include psychiatric comorbidity information.

Is CCD a culture bound disorder?

We were surprised to find that studies in which the researcher referred to the CCD as ‘culture-bound’ had stronger associations between the CCD and psychiatr ic disorders than all other labels. This was counter-intuitive given that ‘culture-bound’ implies a distinction from psychiatric nosology. However, we found that labels such as ‘culture-bound’ or ‘idioms of distress’ were not applied systematically. The same CCD, e.g. ataques de nervios, was described as a culture-bound syndrome, idiom of distress, and popular category by different researchers. Moreover, the category labels for CCD change between studies even within single research teams. Therefore, we do not suggest that comparing studies based on the label used is an informative lens and may lead to potentially spurious associations.

What are the presentations of psychosocial distress and cultural conflicts?

The presentations of psychosocial distress and cultural conflicts are often bodily symptoms, especially in traditional societies and village backgrounds. These might not meet the criteria of the current psychiatric diagnostic systems. Sociocultural milieu contributes to the unique presentations of the stress in the form of idioms of distress.

What are the Idioms of Distress?

Idioms of distress are alternative modes of expressing distress and indicate manifestations of distress in relation to personal and cultural meaning. Distress may arise out of interpersonal conflicts, economic difficulties, and cultural conflicts. These have social implications and are readily accepted by the family and society.

What would be needed to manage idioms of distress?

Management of idioms of distress would need cultural competence and sensitivity. It would be useful to understand the explanatory models held by the individuals and make a cultural formulation. Such explanations and counseling would be more acceptable to the individuals and their families, more so in the rural areas. This would also improve compliance with medications if prescribed.

What is the Punjabi model of somatic symptoms?

The Punjabi model of “sinking heart” offers a culture-bound explanation of somatic symptoms. It is based on culturally specific ideas about the person, the self, and the heart and on the assumption that physical, emotional, and social symptoms of pathology accompany each other.

What are the common presentations to a health setting?

The common presentations to a health setting are often physical or bodily symptoms which could be an idiom of distress. There are hardly any epidemiological studies on the prevalence of these folk illnesses or idioms of distress in Indian rural settings.

What is folk illness?

Folk illnesses are set of several symptoms which cohere in a given community, and the individuals respond in similarly patterned ways .[4] . Persons in this community or society understand, diagnose, and heal illness in a traditional or culturally meaningful way – a local context of meaning of the illness.

What is popular hidden illness?

Popular hidden illness is an ethnomedicine category and is parallel to a professional disease. Popular derives from “popular sector of health-care system” and has a meaning “of the people; of the community,” i.e., recognized in the community but not in professional nosology.

What is culture distress code?

Using “culture” as distress code often arises in decision making on behalf of a seriously ill patient, when a surrogate or other family member expresses a view framed in cultural terms, or when a professional perceives something “cultural” concerning a decision-making process. For example, a family member may tell a team member that withholding a diagnosis or prognosis from a sick person is appropriate within their culture. This type of culturally framed behavior may reflect agreements within a culture that family members should shield a sick person from the burden of this information and bear it themselves or a more specific belief that hearing bad news or talking about the possibility of death is inauspicious and will lead to a worse outcome. How should the professional respond?

What is the problem with using culture?

In addition to clichéd thinking, another problem with using “culture” in a general way—to signal distress or a problem—is that it may, as noted, misattribute a structural problem to the culture of a patient, family, or population. Structural problems for low-income workers, for example, may include lack of sick days, transportation, or child care. Ascribing no-shows to the patient’s “culture” does not fix the problem. Professionals who observe access problems for some patient populations should ask:

What are some examples of culture?

For example, religious commitments are one example of culture, which, for some people, include specific values or prohibitions concerning medical interventions, such as Jehovah’s Witnesses’ refusal of blood products. In all such cases, it is crucial for clinicians to understand the patient’s values as they may inform her treatment and care; these values may or may not correspond to her religious commitments or to those of her family members [3]. A clinician may or may not personally agree with these commitments or be able to accommodate them in a health care setting, but he or she should recognize that they are important to the patient.

Why is culture important in health care?

In health care work, “culture” can function as shorthand for a clinician’s uncertainty or distress based on perceptions about difference or distinctiveness ...

What is culture in nursing?

Culture is learned behavior, including ways of perceiving and thinking, shared among members of a group and from generation to generation within that group. This basic definition is reflected broadly in medicine, nursing, and other clinical professions [1]. Research from cognitive neuroscience suggests that humans are wired to produce culture, in that our brains developed to support social agreement and group collaboration [2]. Culture connects humans to one another in ways that include shared values, beliefs, and practices concerning illness and health. It is a fact of human experience, one that must be examined critically due to the potential consequences for patients of misunderstandings within a culture or concerning culture more broadly.

Why do we need culture?

Research from cognitive neuroscience suggests that humans are wired to produce culture, in that our brains developed to support social agreement and group collaboration [2]. Culture connects humans to one another in ways that include shared values, beliefs, and practices concerning illness and health.

What is culture in cancer?

See, for example, the entry for “culture” in the NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms: “The beliefs, values, and behaviors that are shared within a group, such as a religious group or a nation. Culture includes language, customs, and beliefs about roles and relationships.” https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms?search=culture. Accessed March 27, 2017..

What did Whiting and Whiting's Six Cultures Study show?

By observing parenting and child development across different cultures, Whiting and Whiting's Six Cultures Study showed how a child's behavior and personality is:

What is cultural worldview?

Cultural worldviews contain attitudes, beliefs, opinions, and values about the world.

What is translation protocol?

It involves taking a research protocol in one language, translating it into the target language, and having someone else translate it back to the original.

Is racially defined group more similar than different?

Studies of genetic systems suggest that racially defined groups are more similar than different .

Do all cultures have their own environment?

All human cultures exist in their own specific, unique environment.

What is the relationship between culture and language?

Within a social community, culture and language share human beliefs, realities, and actions. As a result, there is a relationship between culture and language. Whether it’s national folklore or everyday conversation, language and culture go hand in hand. Paralanguage is the non-lexical portion of any culture’s language.

Where does culture come from?

Culture comes from the Latin word “colere,” which means “to produce something out of the earth.” In specific ways, our history is what brings us closer together.

What is paralanguage in culture?

Paralanguage is the non-lexical portion of any culture’s language. It’s a broad word that encompasses things like body language and voice pitch or sound. Depending on where you grew up, the paralanguage will be different. We pick up on those behaviors, expressions, and intonations from the people around us.

Why can't we learn one language without knowing the other?

Language is related to all features of human life in society. And comprehension of the surrounding culture is key to learning a language. The language also allows for the development and evolution of cultural values.

How to learn a foreign language?

First, learn about culture! Learning a foreign language entails learning the alphabet, word order, and grammar rules. Also, learning about the culture and norms of the target community. When learning or teaching a language, it’s vital to understand the culture in which it’s spoken since language is deeply rooted in culture.

How does culture affect your personality?

The language and culture you experience in life have a significant impact on your personality. Culture shapes beliefs and ethics by telling you how to deal with others. Furthermore, it keeps you in touch with like-minded people. Also, it strengthens your sense of belonging to society.

How does language help us?

Language promotes social connections. At the same time, culture aids our learning of how to connect with others.

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