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why do women get gestational diabetes

by Esperanza Mosciski Published 10 months ago Updated 3 months ago
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During pregnancy, your body makes more hormones and goes through other changes, such as weight gain. These changes cause your body's cells to use insulin less effectively, a condition called insulin resistance. Insulin resistance increases your body's need for insulin.

Causes

  • Excess thirst or dry mouth
  • Frequent urination
  • Nausea (this could be hard to decipher from regular morning sickness but if it lasts longer than expected or somehow feels different, let your healthcare provider know)

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Symptoms

You may be more likely than other women to develop gestational diabetes if: You’re older than 25. You’re overweight or obese and not physically active. You had gestational diabetes or a baby with macrosomia in a past pregnancy. You have high blood pressure or you’ve had heart disease.

Prevention

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), or high blood sugar during pregnancy, used to be relatively rare, occurring in about 3 percent to 4 percent of pregnancies. But in recent years, the rate has doubled—now, up to 6 percent to 8 percent of moms-to-be are diagnosed with this prenatal complication.

Complications

These foods are what you should be eating with gestational diabetes:

  • Fresh vegetables
  • Fruits like apples, oranges, peas, berries, grapefruit, etc.
  • Eggs
  • Whole-grain breads and cereals
  • Non-starchy vegetables
  • Starchy vegetables like carrots and peas
  • Beans
  • Chicken
  • Chickpeas
  • Tofu

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How to tell if you have gestational diabetes?

Who is more likely to get gestational diabetes?

What are the odds of having gestational diabetes?

What foods are good to eat with gestational diabetes?

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How can I avoid gestational diabetes?

How can you prevent gestational diabetes or reduce its impact?losing weight before pregnancy.setting a goal for pregnancy weight gain.eating high-fiber, low-fat foods.reducing the size of your food portions.exercising.

Why do healthy women get gestational diabetes?

How do women get it? According to the American Diabetes Association, while hormones from the placenta help the baby develop, they also block the action of the mother's insulin in her body. Without enough insulin, glucose builds up in the blood to high levels, leading to gestational diabetes.

What food causes gestational diabetes?

Try to avoid eating simple carbohydrates, such as potatoes, french-fries, white rice, candy, soda, and other sweets. This is because they cause your blood sugar to rise quickly after you eat such foods....Sweets are high in fat and sugar, so limit how often you eat them. ... Even sugar-free sweets may not be the best choice.More items...•

What increases the risk of gestational diabetes?

You're more likely to have gestational diabetes if you: Are older than 25. Are overweight or obese and not physically active. Have had gestational diabetes or a baby with macrosomia in a past pregnancy.

Is gestational diabetes caused by poor diet?

Just because you eat a certain type of food doesn't mean you'll automatically get gestational diabetes. In fact, there's no surefire way to prevent gestational diabetes. Even mothers who have had gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy may not get it with a later pregnancy.

Does stress cause gestational diabetes?

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) pregnant women are under more psychological stress than normal pregnant women. With the deepening of the study of gestational diabetes mellitus, research has shown that anxiety and depression are also an important cause of gestational diabetes mellitus.

Can you get rid of gestational diabetes while pregnant?

Unlike other types of diabetes, gestational diabetes usually goes away on its own and soon after delivery blood sugar levels return to normal, says Dr. Tania Esakoff, clinical director of the Prenatal Diagnosis Center. "There is no need for gestational diabetes to take away from the joys of pregnancy."

What happens to a baby if the mother has gestational diabetes?

Because of the extra insulin made by the baby's pancreas, newborns may have very low blood glucose levels at birth and are also at higher risk for breathing problems. Babies born with excess insulin become children who are at risk for obesity and adults who are at risk for type 2 diabetes.

What diet is best for gestational diabetes?

Diabetes During Pregnancy: Diet TipsEat 3 meals and 2–3 snacks per day. ... Measure your servings of starchy foods. ... One 8-ounce cup of milk at a time. ... One small portion of fruit at a time. ... Eat more fiber. ... Breakfast Matters. ... Avoid fruit juice and sugary drinks. ... Strictly limit sweets and desserts.More items...

Does drinking a lot of water help with gestational diabetes?

As water contains no carbohydrate or calories, it is the perfect drink for pregnant women. Studies have also shown that drinking water could help control glucose levels. Drink a large glass of water with every meal and another glass in between meals. "Water was key to keeping my glucose levels stable.

Does a big baby mean gestational diabetes?

“Women with gestational diabetes can face an up to 50 per cent increased risk of having a large baby*, which comes with risks of possible complications such as injury to the baby and mother during delivery, emergency or planned caesarean delivery, and haemorrhage,” Dr Vally said.

What is the strongest predictor of whether a woman will develop gestational diabetes?

Maternal obesity16,17 is the strongest predictor and maternal hypertriglyceridaemia is another16,18. Nonetheless, maternal glucose levels are an important determinant.

Can you get gestational diabetes if you are not overweight?

“However, plenty of otherwise healthy women who are in good shape can still develop gestational diabetes.” That's why women are screened with a blood test, rather than just those who are thought to have a chance of having gestational diabetes based on their weight or fitness levels, she explains.

What percentage of pregnant women get gestational diabetes?

How Common Is Diabetes During Pregnancy? In the United States, about 1% to 2% of pregnant women have type 1 or type 2 diabetes and about 6% to 9% of pregnant women develop gestational diabetes.

When do most patients tend to develop gestational diabetes during pregnancy?

Gestational diabetes usually does not occur until later in pregnancy, when the placenta is producing more of the hormones that interfere with the mother's insulin. Screening for gestational diabetes usually takes place between weeks 24 to 28, but women at high risk are likely to be screened in the first trimester.

Was diagnosed with gestational diabetes but blood sugars are normal?

Women with gestational diabetes mellitus generally have normal blood sugar levels during the critical first trimester. The complications of GDM are usually manageable and preventable. The key to prevention is careful control of blood sugar levels just as soon as the diagnosis of diabetes is made.

What is gestational diabetes?

Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar that you get only when you're pregnant. The word "gestational" means the time when the baby grows in the womb. In the U.S., it's estimated that 6 out of every 100 pregnant women have this disease.

How to lower blood sugar during pregnancy?

Work with your doctor to lower your blood sugar during pregnancy. Depending on your test results, this might mean diet changes or medicine. When you keep your blood sugar under control, your baby will be less likely to have diabetes, be born at a heavier-than-normal weight, or have other health problems. Pagination. 1.

How much insulin does the pancreas need to make to keep blood sugar steady?

To keep your blood sugar levels steady, your pancreas has to make more insulin -- as much as three times more than usual. If it can't make enough extra insulin, your blood sugar will rise and you'll get gestational diabetes.

What is it called when your blood sugar is high but not high enough for you to be diagnosed with diabetes?

Your blood sugar levels are high, but not high enough for you to be diagnosed with diabetes; this is called prediabetes. You had gestational diabetes in a past pregnancy. You are over age 25. You gave birth to a baby weighing more than 9 pounds. You had a baby who was stillborn.

What is it called when you are overweight and have diabetes?

Your blood sugar levels are high, but not high enough for you to be diagnosed with diabetes; this is called prediabetes. Gestational diabetes usually starts in the beginning of the third trimester.

Can you get diabetes if you don't have diabetes?

You can get it even if you didn't have diabetes before your pregnancy. Good blood sugar control is important for your health and your baby’s. The first step in managing it is to understand what causes gestational diabetes.

Why do some women have gestational diabetes?

Causes. Researchers don't yet know why some women get gestational diabetes and others don't. Excess weight before pregnancy often plays a role. Normally, various hormones work to keep your blood sugar levels in check. But during pregnancy, hormone levels change, making it harder for your body to process blood sugar efficiently.

What are the risk factors for gestational diabetes?

Risk factors for gestational diabetes include the following: Overweight and obesity. A lack of physical activity. Previous gestational diabetes or prediabetes. Polycystic ovary syndrome. Diabetes in an immediate family member. Previously delivering a baby weighing more than 9 pounds (4.1 kilograms).

How does gestational diabetes affect babies?

If you have gestational diabetes, your baby may be at increased risk of: 1 Excessive birth weight. Higher than normal blood sugar in mothers can cause their babies to grow too large. Very large babies — those who weigh 9 pounds or more — are more likely to become wedged in the birth canal, have birth injuries or need a C-section birth. 2 Early (preterm) birth. High blood sugar may increase women's risk of early labor and delivery before the due date. Or early delivery may be recommended because the baby is large. 3 Serious breathing difficulties. Babies born early to mothers with gestational diabetes may experience respiratory distress syndrome — a condition that makes breathing difficult. 4 Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Sometimes babies of mothers with gestational diabetes have low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) shortly after birth. Severe episodes of hypoglycemia may cause seizures in the baby. Prompt feedings and sometimes an intravenous glucose solution can return the baby's blood sugar level to normal. 5 Obesity and type 2 diabetes later in life. Babies of mothers who have gestational diabetes have a higher risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes later in life. 6 Stillbirth. Untreated gestational diabetes can result in a baby's death either before or shortly after birth.

How to control gestational diabetes during pregnancy?

Expectant mothers can help control gestational diabetes by eating healthy foods, exercising and, if necessary, taking medication. Controlling blood sugar can keep you and your baby healthy and prevent a difficult delivery.

How to get pregnant while pregnant?

Focus on making lasting changes to your eating habits that can help you through pregnancy, such as eating more vegetables and fruits. Don't gain more weight than recommended. Gaining some weight during pregnancy is normal and healthy. But gaining too much weight too quickly can up your risk of gestational diabetes.

Why do babies grow so big?

Excessive birth weight. Higher than normal blood sugar in mothers can cause their babies to grow too large. Very large babies — those who weigh 9 pounds or more — are more likely to become wedged in the birth canal, have birth injuries or need a C-section birth. Early (preterm) birth.

Does gestational diabetes cause high blood pressure?

Gestational diabetes raises your risk of high blood pressure, as well as preeclampsia — a serious complication of pregnancy that causes high blood pressure and other symptoms that can threaten the lives of both mother and baby. Having a surgical delivery (C-section).

What are the symptoms of gestational diabetes?

Usually, gestational diabetes has no symptoms. If you do have symptoms, they may be mild, such as being thirstier than normal or having to urinate more often .

Why do pregnant women have insulin resistance?

Because of these changes, your body’s cells don’t use insulin well, a condition called insulin resistance . All pregnant women have some insulin resistance during late pregnancy. Most pregnant women can produce enough insulin to overcome insulin resistance, but some cannot. These women develop gestational diabetes.

What is the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases?

This content is provided as a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of the National Institutes of Health. The NIDDK translates and disseminates research findings to increase knowledge and understanding about health and disease among patients, health professionals, and the public. Content produced by the NIDDK is carefully reviewed by NIDDK scientists and other experts.

What hormones are made in the pancreas?

Insulin, a hormone made in your pancreas, helps your body use glucose for energy and helps control your blood glucose levels. During pregnancy, your body makes special hormones and goes through other changes, such as weight gain.

Can you get diabetes while pregnant?

These women develop gestational diabetes. Pregnant women who can’t make enough insulin during late pregnancy develop gestational diabetes. Being overweight or obese is linked to gestational diabetes. Women who are overweight or obese may already have insulin resistance when they become pregnant.

Can you get insulin resistance while pregnant?

Women who are overweight or obese may already have insulin resistance when they become pregnant. Gaining too much weight during pregnancy may also be a factor. Having a family history of diabetes makes it more likely that a woman will develop gestational diabetes, which suggests that genes play a role.

How to help a pregnant woman with gestational diabetes?

5 Tips for Women with Gestational Diabetes 1 Eat Healthy Foods#N#Eat healthy foods from a meal plan made for a person with diabetes. A dietitian can help you create a healthy meal plan. Learn more about diabetes meal planning. 2 A dietitian can also help you learn how to control your blood sugar while you are pregnant. To find a registered dietician near you, please visit The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics website#N#external icon#N#.

How to control gestational diabetes?

Often gestational diabetes can be controlled through eating healthy foods and regular exercise. Sometimes a woman with gestational diabetes must also take insulin.

What can a dietitian do for you?

A dietitian can help you create a healthy meal plan. Learn more about diabetes meal planning. A dietitian can also help you learn how to control your blood sugar while you are pregnant. To find a registered dietician near you, please visit The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics website. external icon.

Why does blood sugar change during pregnancy?

Because pregnancy causes the body’s need for energy to change, blood sugar levels can change very quickly. Check your blood sugar often, as directed by your doctor. Take Insulin, If Needed. Sometimes a woman with gestational diabetes must take insulin.

How many weeks pregnant can you have gestational diabetes?

Gestational diabetes usually shows up in the middle of pregnancy. Doctors most often test for it between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. Often gestational diabetes can be controlled through eating healthy foods and regular exercise. Sometimes a woman with gestational diabetes ...

Why is my baby so big?

An Extra Large Baby. Diabetes that is not well controlled causes the baby’s blood sugar to be high. The baby is “overfed” and grows extra large. Besides causing discomfort to the woman during the last few months of pregnancy, an extra large baby can lead to problems during delivery for both the mother and the baby.

What happens if you have high blood pressure while pregnant?

When a pregnant woman has high blood pressure, protein in her urine, and often swelling in fingers and toes that doesn’t go away, she might have preeclampsia. It is a serious problem that needs to be watched closely and managed by her doctor. High blood pressure can cause harm to both the woman and her unborn baby. It might lead to the baby being born early and also could cause seizures or a stroke (a blood clot or a bleed in the brain that can lead to brain damage) in the woman during labor and delivery. Women with diabetes have high blood pressure more often than women without diabetes.

Why is gestational diabetes dangerous?

Prevention. Summary. Gestational diabetes is when blood glucose levels are abnormally high during pregnancy due to the body developing a resistance to insulin. Without treatment, the condition may harm the person and the baby. After the baby is born, symptoms of gestational diabetes usually disappear.

How to prevent gestational diabetes?

Living with overweight or obesity increases the risk of gestational diabetes. Eating a healthful diet and making time for regular physical activity are important for maintaining a healthy weight during pregnancy.

Why is it important to check blood glucose levels while pregnant?

This is why it is important that a doctor diagnoses gestational diabetes promptly to ensure blood glucose levels are kept stable. Around 3%–8% of pregnant people in the United States will develop gestational diabetes.

What are the complications of gestational diabetes?

Examples of possible complications of gestational diabetes for a baby include: early birth. high birth weight. low blood glucose after birth. breathing problems. miscarriage or stillbirth. Gestational diabetes may also increase the risk of preeclampsia. This is a condition that causes high blood pressure.

When do doctors check for gestational diabetes?

Doctors will check for gestational diabetes between the 24th and 28th weeks of pregnancy. They will use blood tests to measure blood glucose levels. The tests may involve a one- or two-step glucose tolerance test. The one-step glucose tolerance test requires fasting overnight.

What is the goal of treatment for diabetes?

The goal of treatment is to manage blood glucose levels, usually through changes in lifestyle.

How many pregnant women have diabetes?

Around 3%–8% of pregnant people in the United States will develop gestational diabetes.

How does the body respond to gestational diabetes?

Usually, the body responds by increasing the amount of insulin it produces . However, some women do not produce enough extra insulin or the extra insulin produced is not working well enough for glucose to be stored in the cells. This leads to higher blood glucose levels – which is called gestational diabetes. NICE (2015).

Why does insulin work when pregnant?

When you are pregnant, your body produces high levels of hormones and some of these hormones stop insulin working as well as it normally does.

How soon after booking appointment can you get a test for gestational diabetes?

If you've had gestational diabetes before, you'll be offered a test soon after your booking appointment. You’ll also be offered another test at 24 to 28 weeks if the first test is normal.

Why does the body need glucose?

Your body needs glucose to provide energy. Your glucose levels change throughout the day. "My health was fine until about 26 weeks into my pregnancy. Then at a routine appointment they noticed glucose in my urine, so they said they needed to do a test to rule out gestational diabetes.

What is the BMI of a pregnant woman?

you had gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy. you had a large baby (weighing 4.5kg about 10lb or more) in a previous pregnancy. your body mass index (BMI) is in the obese category (above 30) you have a parent, brother, sister or child with diabetes. you are of black Caribbean, black African, South Asian or Middle Eastern origin ...

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Overview

Symptoms

Causes

  • Various factors might be responsible for this condition. Hormonal changes during pregnancy plays a main role. Over weight before the preganacy may also cause gestational diabetes.
  • The risk factors may include:
  • Disturbance in secretion or functioning of insulin
  • Pregnancy over 30 years of age is also a prominent factor
  • Family history of diabetes
  • Obesity
  • Health history of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Symptoms
If you are experiencing new, severe, or persistent symptoms, contact a health care provider.

This condition shows no or almost negligible symptoms in many women. For some the symptoms may include:

  • Increased thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • Excessive sweating
  • Overwieght
  • Fatigue

Prevention

  • Have a balanced diet
  • Eat healthy and nutritious food
  • Add exercises in your daily routine
  • Try to lose excess weight before pregnancy

Complications

If uncontrolled, it may lead to complications such as:

  • Heavy birth weight in baby
  • Premature delivery
  • Respiratory distress syndrome in infants.
  • Low blood sugar in the baby
  • Risk of future diabetes in the baby as well as the mother
  • High blood pressure and Preeclampsia in mother

Causes

Risk Factors

Complications

  • Gestational diabetes is diabetes diagnosed for the first time during pregnancy (gestation). Like other types of diabetes, gestational diabetes affects how your cells use sugar (glucose). Gestational diabetes causes high blood sugar that can affect your pregnancy and your baby's health. While any pregnancy complication is concerning, there's good news. During pregnancy y…
See more on mayoclinic.org

Prevention

  • Most of the time, gestational diabetes doesn'tcause noticeable signs or symptoms. Increased thirst and more-frequent urination are possible symptoms.
See more on mayoclinic.org

1.Gestational Diabetes | CDC - Centers for Disease Control …

Url:https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/basics/gestational.html

11 hours ago Why You Get Gestational Diabetes You may be more likely to get this disease if: You were overweight before you got pregnant; extra weight makes it harder for your body to use insulin.

2.Gestational Diabetes Causes: Why It Happens - WebMD

Url:https://www.webmd.com/diabetes/gestational-diabetes-guide/what-causes-gestational-diabetes

22 hours ago  · When blood sugar, or blood glucose, levels rise too high during pregnancy, the medical name for this is gestational diabetes. The hormonal changes that can cause it usually …

3.Gestational diabetes - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic

Url:https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/gestational-diabetes/symptoms-causes/syc-20355339

26 hours ago  · Usually, the body responds by increasing the amount of insulin it produces. However, some women do not produce enough extra insulin or the extra insulin produced is not working …

4.Symptoms & Causes of Gestational Diabetes | NIDDK

Url:https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/what-is-diabetes/gestational/symptoms-causes

5 hours ago True gestational diabetes usually develops between 26 and 36 weeks gestation but may occur earlier. Diabetes diagnosed in the first trimester is suspicious of previously unrecognized pre …

5.Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy | CDC

Url:https://www.cdc.gov/pregnancy/diabetes-gestational.html

27 hours ago Pregnant women who can’t make enough insulin during late pregnancy develop gestational diabetes. Being overweight or obese is linked to gestational diabetes. Women who are …

6.What is gestational diabetes, and why does it develop?

Url:https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/gestational-diabetes

34 hours ago Why does gestational diabetes occur? Gestational diabetes arises when the body is unable to produce sufficient insulin during pregnancy. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas …

7.Causes of gestational diabetes | Tommy's

Url:https://www.tommys.org/pregnancy-information/pregnancy-complications/gestational-diabetes/causes-gestational-diabetes

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